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The first line of defence for a shipping entity facing potentially successful claims against it is the Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims 1976, familiarly known as “LLMC”.1 LLMC provides specific shipping entities with the right to prevent their liability, in respect of specified shipping claims, from going beyond certain internationally recognised limits. There are two special classes of shipping entity: shipowners and salvors.2 We are concerned with the first class, ie, shipowners. The term “shipowner” refers to a multitude of parties within the labyrinth of commercial shipping, as is borne out by the case under discussion. In fact, claims often fail for the non-joinder of the correct