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Index

Miller's Marine War Risks

Page 290 Index Index Abandonment, 22.5 , 25.10 – 25.15 actual total loss, 25.5 capture, 11.20 – 11.21 , 11.28 , 25.11 constructive total loss, 11.53 , 20.36 , 25.13 , 25.8 definition, 25.15 freight, 25.23 by master and crew, 25.14 , 25.15 , 27.15 , 28.34 MIA 1906, 25.15 partial loss, 11.16 , 20.36 , 25.8 , 25.11 to underwriters, 11.21 , 11.26 , 11.30 , 11.43 , 11.47 , 11.48 , 12.34 , 25.15 See also Notice of Abandonment Actual total loss, 25.2 – 25.3 abandonment, 25.5 and capture, 11.37 , 11.40 , 20.34 of cargo, 11.19 , 25.3 MIA 1906, 20.35 missing vessels, 25.24 piracy, 20.32 – 20.33 , 20.35 , 20.38 , 20.40 , 25.3 and seizure, 20.22 – 20.33 Additional expenses Institute Additional Expenses Clause (Cargo War Risks), 4.17 – 4.20 Institute War Clauses Cargo, 4.17 – 4.20 insurance, 3.26 , 4.35 See also Additional War Risk Premiums (AWRP) Additional Premium Areas, 3.26 , 3.29 designation of areas, 3.8 non-QER coverage, 4.39 Queen’s Enemy Risks, 31.28 , 31.68 unsafe ports and places, 3.13 – 3.16 , 3.19 – 3.21 , 4.44 , 13.30 , 24.70 voyage charter cases, 3.26 – 3.27 , 3.30 Additional War Risk Premiums (AWRP), 3.16 – 3.17 breach of warranty premiums, 3.12 responsibility for payment of, 3.16 – 3.27 special terms and conditions, 3.8 seven days’ notice for, 3.8 , 3.10 , 3.14 time-charter cases, 3.18 – 3.25 voyage charter cases, 3.26 – 3.27 , 3.30 Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Services (ACAS), 16.11 Afghanistan War 2002, 6.41 , 18.27 Aircraft, 12.24 – 12.26 Air India Boeing 747, 18.29 bombings by, 6.27 , 6.30 , 31.69 cargo on, 29.11 , 30.4 , 31.8 Lockerbie, 18.29 hijacking, 18.25 seizure, 18.15 , 12.25 American Civil War, 14.3 – 14.5 Angary, 4.32 Areas of Perceived Enhanced Risk (APER), 24.55 , 26.1 , 26.3 Arrest, 13.2 . See also Arrest, restraint or detainment Arrest, restraint or detainment, 11.73 , 13.1 , 13.28 , 31.16 12-month Clause, 13.33 – 13.35 consequences or attempts, 14.1 – 14.6 frustration Clause, 13.24 – 13.27 by “home” government, 23.10 illustrative cases, 13.11 – 13.14 , 13.29 – 13.32 Mutual War Risks Associations, 13.28 and the use of force, 13.15 – 13.22 Automatic Termination of Cover, 4.30 – 4.31 AWRP. See Additional War Risk Premiums (AWRP) Baltic and International Maritime Council (BIMCO), 3.28 Bandar Khomeini, 24.64 , 26.15 Barratry, 12.16 , 12.18 , 12.19 , 12.20 , 12.22 , 12.39 , 12.41 – 12.43 , 20.4 , 20.24 The Binder, 31.2 Blockade, 11.31 , 13.4 Blocking and trapping insurance, 3.22 Boer War, 12.28 Bombs, 15.1 – 15.19 Page 291 in the Falkland Islands War, 6.27 See also Detonations; Nuclear weapons Breach, remedies for, 24.50 Breaches of warranty, 3.11 Canada, 10.7 , 19.39 , 27.16 , 31.2 , 31.5 , 31.42 Canada Engaged Risks, 31.5 Cancellation and Automatic Termination of Cover Clause, 3.3 , 4.1 – 4.8 , 4.7 , 4.11 – 4.12 , 4.16 , 4.20 , 4.24 , 4.34 cancellation on seven days’ notice, 4.9 cargo stored afloat, 4.16 cargo—additional expenses, 4.17 – 4.20 cargo—strikes, 4.21 – 4.23 cargo—war clauses (general cargo), 4.17 – 4.20 cargo—war clauses (special cargo), 4.17 – 4.20 Combined Group of War Risk Clubs, 4.38 – 4.41 containers, 4.13 – 4.15 Hellenic war risks club, 4.44 – 4.46 hostile detonation of any nuclear weapon of war, 4.10 mutual associations, 4.37 outbreak of war between Five Permanent Members of the Security Council, 4.24 – 4.32 requisition, 4.33 – 4.36 ships and freight, 4.11 – 4.12 UK war risks, 4.42 – 4.43 Capture, 21.1 , 25.3 , 31.16 apprehension of, 11.47 – 11.62 consequences or attempts, 14.1 – 14.6 by “home” government, 23.10 hull, freight and cargo clauses, 11.4 – 11.8 illustrative cases, 11.17 – 11.40 meaning of, 11.12 – 11.16 origin of capture and seizure perils, 11.1 – 11.3 and piracy, 20.4 piratical, 20.36 – 20.38 prize and search cases, 11.63 – 11.73 as proximate cause, 28.14 , 28.16 , 28.17 and recapture, 25.12 and recovery, 20.39 – 20.40 and seizure, 1.9 – 1.11 , 19.36 vs. seizure, 11.9 – 11.11 unlikelihood of recovery, 11.41 – 11.46 See also Piracy; Seizure Cargo additional expenses, 4.17 – 4.20 clauses, 11.8 , 12.45 , 18.4 – 18.5 , 22.1 insurance of, 15.17 – 15.19 stored afloat, 4.16 Cargo Strikes Clauses, 4.21 – 4.23 , 29.1 , 29.3 – 29.7 duration of coverage, 29.15 – 19.19 minimising losses and waiver, 29.20 reasonable despatch, 29.21 – 29.22 special cargoes, 4.21 Cargo War Clauses duration of coverage, 29.8 – 29.14 , 29.19 general cargo, 4.17 – 4.20 , 29.1 – 29.2 minimising losses and waiver, 29.20 reasonable despatch, 29.21 – 29.22 special cargo, 4.17 – 4.20 Cause. See Proximate cause Charterparties cancellation of, 6.7 and payment of AWRP, 3.16 – 3.27 and seizure, 12.8 China (People’s Republic of China) border dispute with USSR, 4.32 invasion of India, 4.31 in the Nuclear Club, 4.2 war with Japan, 6.7 , 6.8 , 6.9 , 12.9 Civil commotions, 8.1 , 8.5 , 8.40 , 9.3 , 16.1 , 17.21 – 17.29 characteristics of, 17.37 in other common law jurisdictions, 17.30 – 17.35 exclusion of, 1.17 See also Riots Civil disorder, 9.1 – 9.4 Civil disturbances, 16.1 Civil strife, 9.1 – 9.4 , 11.8 Civil wars, 6.4 , 7.1 – 7.15 , 11.8 American, 14.3 – 14.5 courts’ decisions, 7.11, 7.12 in Lebanon, 5.10 , 7.4 – 7.11 , 7.15 and public international law, 7.12 scale of conflict, 7.13 – 7.14 Spanish, 6.12 – 6.17 , 12.34 and the Spinney’s (1948) Ltd. case, 7.4 – 7.11 , 7.15 test points for, 7.13 and treason, 7.12 vs. war, 7.12 Clandestine theft, 20.15 Combined Group of War Risk Clubs, 2.8 , 4.38 – 4.41 , 4.43 Committee of London War Risk Underwriters, 2.2 Confiscation, 21.1 – 21.2 by “home” government, 23.10 risk of, 3.4 Constructive total loss, 11.42 and abandonment, 22.9 , 25.10 , 25.23 captured vessel as, 11.19 , 11.53 , 12.13 , 13.32 , 20.24 , 20.35 , 25.13 , 25.17 , 25.20 , 25.21 Page 292 claiming of, 11.52 compared to actual, 25.1 – 25.7 of a damaged vessel, 24.32 , 24.64 , 27.6 , 27.24 defined, 11.42 , 12.4 Detainment Clause, 13.33 , 13.35 election for, 25.8 – 25.9 exclusion for failure to provide security, 23.23 of goods, 13.22 , 13.26 , 20.32 , 20.33 in MIA 1906, 24.6 recovery of, 11.44 sinking as, 19.11 , 22.18 , 25.15 Container Clauses, 23.10 War and Strikes Clauses, 30.1 – 30.5 Containers, 30.1 – 30.5 insurance of, 4.13 , 15.15 – 15.16 Contracting out, 24.22 – 24.14 CONWARTIME 2013 Clause, 3.28 – 3.29 Crimean War, 12.11 Criminal liability, 5.6 –5.19 Customs infringement, 21.1 Customs regulations, 19.36 , 23.11 – 23.17 , 23.26 Cyber Attack Exclusion Clause, 5.14 Cyber warfare, 5.11 –5.15 Data dumping, 24.42 Deprivation of possession, 12.44 , 12.46 , 13.32 , 25.3 , 25.19 , 25.22 Derelict, defined, 15.4 Desert Shield, 6.29 Desert Storm, 6.29 Detainment, 13.1 , 13.7 – 13.10 . See also Arrest, restraint or detainment Detainment Clause, 13.33 , 13.35 Detonations, 1.25 of bombs, 10.4 of nuclear weapons, 4.10 , 4.15 , 4.22 , 4.23 , 4.45 practice or accidental, 4.19 , 4.22 See also Bombs; Mines; Nuclear weapons Disappearance of ship, 28.27 , 28.29 , 28.39 – 28.40 Domestic disturbances, 17.32 Dreadnought (Massie), 1.14 Duty of Assured clauses, 22.1 , 22.2 Easter Rising, 7.2 1812 War (U.S./U.K.), 11.25 Embargo, 11.32 , 12.8 , 13.2 , 13.4 , 13.8 , 13.12 – 13.14 , 28.15 Entered ships, 25.21 , 31.15 – 31.17 Exclusion clauses, 1.27 , 14.3 , 29.5 – 29.7 for capture, etc. by “home” government, 23.10 for containers, 30.2 , 30.4 Cyber Attack Exclusion Clause, 5.14 for failure to provide security, 23.22 – 23.26 “free of capture and seizure”, 1.9 – 1.11 , 1.18 , 11.2 , 11.37 general approach to construction, 23.2 for malicious acts, 1.27 for “ordinary judicial process”, 23.18 – 23.21 pre-emption, 23.9 for quarantine regulations, customs or trading regulations (Clause 4.1.5), 23.11 – 23.17 requisition (Clause 4.1.3), 4.35 , 23.3 – 23.8 riots and civil commotions, 1.17 strikes, 1.27 use of computer or electronic system in launching weapons or missiles, 5.14 war risk perils, 1.15 warlike operations, 1.17 – 1.19 , 10.1 Explosive detonations. See Detonations Expropriation, 21.1 – 21.2 by “home” government, 23.10 Falkland Islands (South Atlantic War), 6.22 – 6.27 , 31.6 , 31.18 , 31.20 , 31.67 – 31.70 , 31.74 Fashoda incident, 1.15 F.C. & S. Clause (Freedom of Capture and Seizure Clause), 1.8 – 1.26 , 6.1 , 12.28 – 12.29 , 13.24 history of, 1.8 – 1.10 , 1.8 – 1.26 , 1.17 – 1.20 versions of, 1.16 – 1.24 war risk cases on “consequences”, 14.2 50/50 clauses, 28.48 Fiji Islands, 8.37 – 8.38 , 17.35 Fines, failure to pay, 23.23 Fire on ships, 1.29 Fish stock management and conservation, 23.17 Force, 13.15 – 13.23 Forfeiture rule, 27.21 at common law, 27.32 under IA 2015, 27.33 limits of fraudulent claims, 27.22 – 27.31 France, 31.2 in the Gulf War, 6.30 in the Nuclear Club, 4.2 Franco-Prussian War, 11.31 Fraudulent claims, 26.24 , 27.1 – 27.2 Fraudulent devices, 27.26 Freight clauses, 11.7 French Navy, 11.53 French Revolution, 8.7 Frustration Clause, 13.24 – 13.27 Germany citizens as agents of, 10.4 – 10.8 Page 293 declaration of war by UK, 6.19 Imperial German Navy, 1.14 naval ambitions of, 1.14 Global claims limit, 5.14 Good faith, 24.15 – 24.16 , 24.51 , 26.19 , 27.34 Gordon riots, 8.9 , 8.14 , 17.22 Granwood , 1.25 Greece, 31.44 , 31.45 terrorism on cruise ship, 18.29 Green clearance, 11.65 Gulf of Aden, 20.7 , 20.8 Gulf of Guinea, 20.4 , 20.7 Gulf War, 6.28 – 6.32 , 12.24 – 12.26 , 31.71 – 31.74 Held covered clauses, 3.15 , 26.1 – 26.3 complex, 26.13 – 26.15 complex (prior notice), 26.16 – 26.18 and doctrine of utmost good faith, 26.9 – 26.11 , 26.19 – 26.24 simple, 26.4 – 26.8 simple (conclusions), 26.12 Hellenic War Risk Association, 3.23 – 3.24 , 4.44 – 4.46 , 24.62 Hijacking, 10.13 , 18.15 , 20.39 Hostile acts by or against a belligerent power, 10.1 – 10.13 Hostilities, 6.1 , 6.3 , 14.4 . See also War Hull clauses, 11.5 – 11.6 , 22.1 India invasion by USSR, 4.31 nuclear weapons in, 4.3 Indiscriminate violence, 19.43 Indonesia, 20.7 , 20.8 Inducement, 24.25 Institute of London Underwriters, 2.1 Insurance fraud, 20.18 Insured perils, 5.1 , 31.15 , 31.18 approach to interpretation of, 5.3 – 5.5 capture as, 11.17 – 11.40 for future conflicts, 5.11 –5.15 insurrection, 8.39 military and usurped power, 5.4 vs. “risks covered”, 5.2 piracy, 20.14 , 20.43 rebellion, 8.39 revolution, 8.39 riot, 17.9 – 17.10 role of criminal and public international law when interpreting, 5.6 – 5.10 war as, 1.14 – 1.16 , 1.28 , 6.42 warlike operations, 5.4 Insurrection, 8.23 – 8.27 , 8.29 , 8.34 , 8.36 , 8.38 , 10.13 , 11.8 , 17.28 definition of, 8.6 , 8.24 , 8.27 vs. rebellion, 8.39 Interallied Insurance Organization (I.I.O.), 31.2 , 31.43 International Maritime Bureau’s Piracy Reporting Centre, 20.7 Iran, 4.3 , 13.30 , 15.13 , 18.29 , 26.15 shipping lines, 3.21 , 3.22 , 3.25 Iran-Iraq war, 1.16 , 13.30 , 15.13 , 22.13 , 23.17 , 24.64 , 26.15 , 31.69 , 31.72 , 31.74 Iraq Desert Storm/Desert Shield, 6.29 – 6.30 invasion of Kuwait by, 6.29 perils of war in, 6.32 UN inspection of, 6.31 Japan, 6.7 , 6.8 , 6.9 , 12.9 Jettison, 11.58 , 11.59 , 14.6 King’s Enemy Risks, 31.5 , 31.6 . See also Queen’s Enemy Risks Korean War, 6.21 , 31.6 Kosovo, 6.33 – 6.40 Krigsforsikringen for Danske Skibe, 2.8 Kuwait, 6.29 – 6.32 Kuwait Airways, 12.24 – 12.26 Labour disturbances examples of, 16.11 – 16.12 lock-outs, 1.24 , 16.1 , 16.3 , 16.9 persons taking part in, 16.10 , 16.12 See also Strikes and Strikers Lebanon, 5.10 , 7.4 – 7.11 , 7.15 Lock-outs, 1.24 , 16.1 , 16.3 , 16.9 London Group, 31.5 , 31.6 , 31.10 , 31.14 , 31.18 , 31.20 London Steamship Owners Mutual Insurance Association Limited, 2.8 Looting, 6.15 , 7.11 , 7.15 , 8.34 , 8.36 , 8.38 , 9.3 , 17.8 , 17.34 , 17.35 , 20.28 Loss of earnings insurance, 3.22 Loss or damage to property caused by barratry, 12.20 caused by capture, 11.40 caused by derelict mines, torpedoes, bombs, and weapons of war, 1.24 , 15.1 – 15.19 caused by explosions or weapons, 1.24 , 1.25 caused by fire, 11.60 – 11.61 caused by hostilities, 1.24 , 4.26 caused by insurrection, 8.25 – 8.26 caused by jettison, 11.58 , 14.6 caused by looting, 8.37 caused by perils of the seas, 11.39 , 14.5 by piratical seizure, 20.32 – 20.42 caused by unseaworthiness, 27.8 Page 294 caused by use of computer or electronic system in launching weapons or missiles, 5.14 See also Actual total loss; Constructive total loss; Partial loss; Total loss Malice and malicious acts, 19.1 – 19.4 examples, 19.39 – 19.43 fire, 1.29 intentional harm, 19.41 malicious damage and related perils, 19.36 – 19.38 political motives for, 19.40 – 19.43 , 19.43 proof of complicity, 19.35 specific intent and non-marine insurance cases, 19.28 – 19.32 “targeted malice” test, 19.8 – 19.10 as targeted or wanton vandalism, 19.5 – 19.34 test in The B Atlantic , 19.17 – 19.26 “wider” test, 19.11 – 19.16 See also Piracy Malicious Acts Exclusion, 1.27 Malicious Damage Clause, 1.26 MAR Form, 15.4 – 15.5 , 31.1 history of, 1.5 – 1.7 , 1.27 – 1.30 with Institute War and Strikes Clauses, 2.4 Marine Insurance Values, 31.51 Marine Policy, 15.4 , 15.12 Marine risks, 1.28 as separate from war risks, 1.14 – 1.16 , 1.20 – 1.21 , 1.28 Market Reform Contract, 2.3 Materiality, 24.21 , 24.49 Military or usurped power, 8.2 , 8.8 – 8.21 , 8.23 , 8.39 – 8.40 , 17.28 Military tribunals, 23.19 Mines damage to cargo caused by, 15.17 – 15.19 damage to containers caused by, 15.15 – 15.16 derelict, 15.1 , 15.3 , 15.4 , 15.7 , 15.9 – 15.13 , 15.15 – 15.19 , 29.2 , 29.12 , 30.4 , 31.15 difficulty tracing, 15.11 , 28.2 exclusion of, 15.2 , 15.4 , 15.9 , 15.19 laid in peacetime, 15.8 limpet, 19.42 loss due to, 1.24 , 15.13 Missing ships, 25.24 Mob violence, 17.18 Mutiny, 8.35 , 8.37 , 12.9 , 12.39 , 17.28 , 17.35 , 20.24 Mutual War Risks Associations, 1.25 , 2.6 – 2.10 , 4.37 , 4.38 , 13.28 , 16.5 , 18.29 , 19.39 , 24.63 , 31.1 and the 12-month Clause, 25.21 insurance for mines and other weapons, 15.10 Napoleonic Wars, 11.25 , 23.9 National Pact of 1943, 7.6 NATO Civil Wartime Agency (N.C.W.A.), 31.43 NATO war risks insurance scheme, 4.44 , 31.39 – 31.43 First stage (1970 to 1982), 31.44 – 31.53 improved basic principles, 31.63 – 31.67 improved valuation scheme, 31.62 methods of underwriting, 31.57 the policy, 31.56 Second stage (1982 to 1992), 31.54 – 31.55 structure, 31.58 – 31.61 Navigation Limitations for Hull War, Strikes, Terrorism and Related Perils Endorsement, 24.55 – 24.56 as promissory warranties, 24.57 Non-Queen’s Enemy Risks, 31.5 , 31.16 , 31.19 Notice of Abandonment cases where not necessary, 25.23 consequences of rejection of, 25.16 instances when given, 11.17 , 11.21 , 11.23 , 11.26 , 11.27 , 11.28 , 11.29 , 11.30 , 11.31 , 12.34 refusal of, 11.34 , 11.43 , 11.48 , 11.51 , 11.53 , 13.21 , 25.9 , 25.10 and sue and labour agreement, 22.9 time for giving, 11.33 , 25.18 – 25.19 and total or partial loss, 20.36 , 20.38 , 22.10 , 25.4 , 25.8 , 25.10 – 25.13 Notice of Cancellation and Automatic Termination of Cover Clause, 31.1 Notice of Cancellation Clause (Clause 6.1), 3.9 , 3.12 , 3.9 Nuclear Exclusion, 1.27 Nuclear weapons, 4.1 – 4.3 , 4.6 , 4.10 , 4.11 , 4.12 , 4.15 , 4.22 , 4.23 , 4.32 , 4.39 , 31.1 Open registers, 2.9 Partial loss, 11.27 – 11.29 , 20.36 , 22.2 , 25.2 , 25.5 , 25.8 , 25.11 , 25.17 Particular charges, 22.2 People’s Republic of China. See China (People’s Republic of China) Perils of the seas, 1.9 . See also Marine risks Persian Gulf Wars, 13.30 Piracy, 12.2 , 12.23 , 12.36 , 12.38 , 25.3 actual total loss, 20.35 anti-piracy measures and marine insurance, 20.31 capture and recovery, 20.39 – 20.40 Page 295 characteristics of, 20.43 and damage to the vessel, 20.18 definitional issues, 20.9 – 20.13 definitions of, 20.5 examples of losses by, 20.41 – 20.42 as exclusion, 1.18 incidences, 20.7 – 20.8 as insured peril: cargo cover, 20.3 as insured peril: Hull & Machinery cover, 20.1 – 20.2 limits of the peril, 20.4 – 20.6 location, 20.4 , 20.7 – 20.8 , 20.14 , 20.43 method, 20.15 – 20.22 nature and timing of loss, 20.32 – 20.34 piratical capture and loss, 20.36 – 20.38 for ransom, 20.13 , 22.19 risk of, 3.4 on a river voyage, 20.10 – 20.11 , 20.14 seizure for political motive, 20.26 – 20.30 , 20.43 and strangers/crew/passengers, 20.23 – 20.25 , 20.43 vs. terrorism, 20.12 , 20.43 unsuccessful, 20.16 , 20.21 Piracy Reporting Centre, 20.7 Premiums additional premiums and their calculation, 3.6 – 3.15 , 4.39 background, 3.1 – 3.5 breach of warranty premiums, 3.11 CONWARTIME 2013 Clause, 3.28 – 3.29 on Hull and Machinery (Persian Gulf), 3.21 , 3.24 refund on, 3.23 , 3.25 VOYWAR 2013 Clause, 3.30 See also Additional War Risk Premiums (AWRP) Privity, 24.6 Prize and search cases, 11.63 – 11.73 Prize Court cases, 11.18 , 11.34 , 11.37 , 11.38 , 11.41 , 11.43 , 11.63 , 11.65 , 11.67 , 11.68 , 11.70 , 20.38 , 23.19 , 25.3 Promissory warranties, 24.57 – 24.83 Property damage claims, 18.18 Protection and Indemnity Associations, 2.6 Proximate cause, 5.1 , 14.2 , 28.1 – 28.5 of a casualty, 5.5 cause of casualty cannot be established, 28.26 – 28.48 conclusion on, 28.49 generally, 28.6 – 28.13 several things happen at once, 28.14 – 28.25 war as, 8.4 Public international law, 5.6 Quarantine, 23.11 – 23.12 Queen’s Enemy Risks, 31.5 , 31.6 , 31.11 , 31.17 , 31.18 , 31.20 – 31.21 and the Reinsurance Agreement, 31.22 – 31.38 Ransom, 20.17 , 20.32 , 20.33 , 20.34 , 22.19 , 22.20 and piracy, 20.13 , 22.19 Rebellion, 10.13 , 11.8 , 17.28 definition of, 8.6 – 8.7 , 8.23 , 8.39 Reinsurance Agreement, 2.5 , 31.8 , 31.11 , 31.12 , 31.18 , 31.20 – 31.21 Clauses 1 to, 3, 31.22 Clauses 4 to 5 (reinsured ships), 31.23 Clauses 6 to 8 (insured values), 31.24 Clauses 9 to 11 (conversion into sterling, 31.25 Clauses 12 to 14 (reinsurance premiums), 31.26 Clause 15 (general premium notices), 31.27 Clause 16 (special premium notices), 31.28 Clause 17 (consultation), 31.29 Clauses 18 to 21 (settlement of claims), 31.30 Clause 31 (disputes), 31.31 – 31.32 Clauses 33 to 35 (commencement nd termination), 31.33 – 31.38 Requisition, 4.33 – 4.36 , 21.1 , 23.3 – 23.8 exclusion for acts of, 4.35 in the Hellenic war risks club, 4.46 in times of civil unrest, 6.14 – 6.15 for title or use, 4.41 Restoration, 25.17 Restraint, 13.1 , 13.3 – 13.6 , 13.13 , 13.15 , 13.22 of princes, 13.11 – 13.14 , 13.20 – 13.21 , 13.24 , 13.31 See also Arrest, restraint or detainment Reverse burden Clause, 17.23 Revolution, 11.8 , 17.28 definition of, 8.6 – 8.7 , 8.39 Riots, 8.1 , 8.40 , 16.1 , 17.1 , 17.4 – 17.7 characteristics of, 17.36 defined, 17.2 – 17.3 exclusion of, 1.17 as insured peril, 17.9 – 17.10 in other common law jurisdictions, 17.30 – 17.35 physical proximity of participants, 17.24 as public order offence, 17.8 Risk management clauses, 24.53 – 24.54 under IA 2015, 24.73 – 24.83 under MIA 1906, 24.59 – 24.72 Risks duty to disclose, 24.22 fair presentation of, 24.15 – 24.16 , 24.41 , 24.44 Page 296 investigation of, 24.47 misrepresentation of, 24.15 – 24.16 , 24.17 – 24.18 , 24.28 – 24.54 , 24.43 non-disclosure of under MIA 1906 24.17 – 24.18 ,, 24.19 – 24.22 pre-contractual disclosure of, 24.27 , 24.37 Robbery at sea. See Piracy Royal Navy, 11.53 Russian Revolution, 8.7 Russo-Japanese War, 11.37 , 11.51 Sabotage, 8.29 , 12.24 , 19.26 , 28.2 Salvage charges for, 6.12 , 11.19 , 11.22 , 22.2 , 22.4 , 29.2 , 29.3 of cargo, 11.28 payment of, 11.15 , 11.21 , 25.9 and scuttling, 27.6 as sue and labour expense, 22.16 – 22.18 by third parties, 22.16 in war, 6.27 SCOPIC, 22.18 Scuttling, 6.16 , 12.44 , 12.45 , 13.25 , 19.26 , 25.14 , 27.1 , 27.3 – 27.4 , 27.6 , 27.11 , 27.18 , 27.22 , 28.34 – 28.37 , 28.37 , 31.69 proof of, 27.3 – 27.4 Searches in port, 11.64 Seaworthiness, 26.4 Security, failure to provide, 23.22 – 23.23 Seizure, 11.68 , 11.73 , 20.29 – 20.30 , 21.1 , 22.14 , 28.25 , 31.16 by those on board, 12.36 , 12.39 – 12.46 vs. capture, 11.9 – 11.11 consequences or attempts, 14.1 – 14.6 on a false basis, 23.15 by “home” government, 23.10 illustrative cases, 12.8 – 12.26 meaning of, 12.1 – 12.7 and piracy, 12.23 , 12.36 , 12.37 , 20.3 , 20.4 , 25.3 for political motive, 20.26 – 20.30 and the presence of force, 12.27 – 12.32 as proximate cause, 28.15 , 28.16 , 28.18 public or private ends, 12.33 – 12.35 of the ship by those on board, 12.36 – 12.42 See also Capture; Piracy Senior Civil Emergency Planning Committee (S.C.E.P.C.), 31.43 Seven Years’ War, 11.17 , 25.11 S.G. Form (Ships/Goods Form), 6.1 , 11.57 , 12.33 , 12.34 , 12.37 , 12.45 – 12.46 history of, 1.2 – 1.4 , 1.7 , 1.27 – 1.30 sue and labour, 22.1 Shipping War Losses Working Group (S.W.L.W.G.), 31.43 , 31.44 , 31.47 , 31.48 , 31.52 – 31.53 Ships, requisitioned and chartered, 31.19 Siege, 11.31 , 13.4 Sino-Japanese War, 6.7 , 6.8 , 12.9 Smuggling, 12.16 , 12.17 , 23.16 Somalia, 20.4 , 20.8 , 20.13 , 20.32 South Africa, 8.29 , 12.45 , 17.30 , 31.3 Spanish Civil War, 6.12 – 6.17 , 12.34 casualties, 6.15 – 6.16 courts’ decisions, 6.17 facts, 6.13 – 6.14 Standard Steamship Owners Mutual War Risks Association Limited, 2.8 Strikes and Strikers, 16.3 , 16.5 – 16.8 defined, 16.6 , 16.8 strikes, riots and civil commotions clauses, 12.45 sympathetic, 16.7 Strikes Exclusion, 1.27 Strikes risk Clause, 16.1 – 16.4 Sue and Labour Clause, 11.52 , 22.1 , 25.17 commencement and duration of, 22.7 – 22.10 effect of failure to sue and labour, 22.11 – 22.12 extraordinary expenses, 22.13 – 22.15 illegality issues, 22.19 –19- 22.20 irrecoverable expenses, 22.4 in Queens’ Enemy Risk, 31.17 salvage and general average, 22.16 – 22.18 Suez Canal, 3.13 Terrorism, 1.29 , 19.41 9/11 attacks, 6.41 , 18.13 , 18.18 , 18.21 – 18.24 , 24.30 as contractual term, 18.2 – 18.3 definition of in marine insurance policies, 18.4 – 18.7 in insurance-related litigation, 18.13 – 18.28 and malicious acts, 19.43 maritime, 18.1 and piracy, 20.4 , 20.12 , 20.43 prior claims related to, 18.29 related to acts of war and armed conflict, 18.2 risk of, 3.4 , 3.13 statutory definitions of, 18.7 – 18.12 typology of actions, 18.8 – 18.9 Third party liability, 31.17 Time Clauses, 1.25 , 1.27 , 15.3 Cargo clauses, 21.1 Hulls (Clause 19), 25.7 Hulls and piracy, 20.2 Hulls, Freight, and Containers, 1.2 , 21.1 “Inchmaree” Clause (Clause 7), 1.25 new additions, 1.27 Torpedoes, 15.1 – 15.19 , 30.4 . See also Detonations Total loss Page 297 actual vs. constructive, 25.1 – 25.7 due to mine explosion, 25.3 due to missile strike, 25.3 See also Actual total loss; Constructive total loss; Loss or damage to property Trade union litigation, 16.1 Trading regulations, 21.1 , 23.11 – 23.17 Treason, 7.12 , 8.9 – 8.10 , 8.12 , 8.13 , 8.20 , 8.39 , 17.22 Treaty of Ottawa, 31.40 , 31.50 12-Month Clause, 13.33 – 13.35 U-Boats, 11.65 , 28.20 , 28.31 , 28.39 , 28.40 , 31.41 Underwriters liability of, 19.38 London market, 2.1 – 2.5 Mutual Associations, 2.6 – 2.10 United Kingdom and the Falklands Conflict, 6.22 – 6.27 , 31.67 in the Gulf War, 6.30 , 6.31f in the Nuclear Club, 4.2 war risks, 4.42 – 4.43 wartime insurance, 31.2 – 31.19 United Nations conventions, 4.29 Five Permanent Members of the Security Council, 4.2 , 4.11 , 4.24 – 4.32 , 4.28 , 4.30 , 4.40 , 31.1 inspection of Iraq by, 6.30 and the Kosovo conflict, 6.33 , 6.35 , 6.37 , 6.39 Security Council, 6.21 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), 1.22 , 1.27 United States American Civil War, 14.3 – 14.5 The Binder, 31.2 exclusion of civil commotion, 17.31 in the Gulf War, 6.30 , 6.31 in the Nuclear Club, 4.2 Unseaworthiness, 24.6 , 27.8 , 29.5 USSR border dispute with China, 4.32 in the Nuclear Club, 4.2 Utmost good faith doctrine, in MIA 1906, 27.34 Vandalism, 19.5 , 19.21 , 19.26 Venezuela, 19.6 , 20.8 Violent disorder, 17.5 Violent theft, 20.4 VOYWAR 2013 Clause, 3.30 War 9/11 attacks, 6.41 , 18.13 , 18.18 , 18.21 – 18.24 , 24.30 1812 War (U.S./U.K.), 11.25 American Civil War, 14.3 – 14.5 Anglo-French invasion of Egypt, 31.6 Boer War, 12.28 casualties, 6.15 – 6.16 civil war, 6.4 , 6.12 – 6.16 , 7.1 – 7.15 condition of animus belligerendi , 6.10 – 6.11 conflict in Kosovo, 6.33 – 6.40 Crimean War, 12.11 cyber warfare, 5.11 –5.15 definition of, 4.29 , 6.2 – 6.12 Falkland Islands (South Atlantic War), 6.22 – 6.27 , 31.6 , 31.18 , 31.20 , 31.67 – 31.70 , 31.74 First Gulf War, 6.28 – 6.32 , 12.24 – 12.26 , 31.71 – 31.74 Franco-Prussian War, 11.31 French Revolution, 8.7 between Greece and Turkey, 11.43 as insured peril, 1.14 – 1.16 , 1.28 , 6.1 Iran-Iraq war, 1.16 , 13.30 , 15.13 , 22.13 , 23.17 , 24.64 , 26.15 , 31.69 , 31.72 , 31.74 between Italy and Turkey, 11.43 key principles from case law, 6.43 Korean War, 6.21 , 31.6 Napoleonic Wars, 11.25 , 23.9 Persian Gulf Wars, 13.30 possible world war, 3.1 – 3.3 , 4.28 revolution, rebellion, and insurrection, 8.1 – 8.40 Russian Revolution, 8.7 Russo-Japanese War, 11.37 , 11.51 Seven Years’ War, 11.17 , 25.11 Sino-Japanese War, 6.7 , 6.8 , 12.9 Spanish Civil War, 6.12 – 6.16 , 12.34 Vietnam War, 10.12 World War I, 11.53 , 11.64 – 11.66 , 31.7 World War II, 6.18 – 6.20 , 11.69 , 12.44 , 31.6 , 31.7 See also Civil disorder; Hostile acts War and Strikes Clauses, 1.2 , 1.6 , 1.27 , 2.4 , 2.5 , 2.9 , 8.2 , 8.29 , 13.24 , 13.30 , 16.19, 31.1 Automatic Termination of Cover, 4.30 – 4.31 Cancellation and Automatic Termination of Cover Clause, 3.3 , 4.7 , 4.8 , 4.11 – 4.12 , 4.16 , 4.20 , 4.24 , 4.34 , 4.44 Cargo, 4.17 , 29.1 – 29.2 , 29.5 – 29.7 Cargo—special cargoes, 4.17 Cargo—Strikes, 4.25 Cargo—War, 4.25 Container Clauses, 4.25 , 4.36 Containers—Time, 4.13 , 30.1 – 30.5 exclusion of losses caused by nuclear weapons, 4.6 , 4.10 , 4.11 , 4.12 , 4.15 , 4.22 , 4.39 Freight, 4.11 , 4.25 , 4.35 Page 298 Hulls, 4.25 , 4.36 , 25.7 Hulls—Time, 4.11 , 4.24 , 4.35 Hulls, 12-month Clause (Clause 3), 25.20 – 25.22 loss or damage caused by derelict mines, torpedoes, bombs and weapons of war, 15.1 – 15.19 Malicious Damage Clause, 1.26 War Compensation Court, 11.66 War Exclusion, 1.27 War insured perils, 1.28 as separate from marine risks, 1.14 – 1.16 War Risk Insurance aviation, 5.3 blocking and trapping, 3.22 CONWARTIME Clause, 3.28 – 3.29 deleted clauses, 1.3 development of, 1.8 – 1.26 exclusions, 1.9 – 1.11 forfeiture rule, 27.21 – 27.33 Iranian, 3.25 loss of earnings, 3.22 peacetime, 3.2 , 3.3 underwriters, 2.1 – 2.10 VOYWAR Clause, 3.28 , 3.30 See also Exclusion clauses War Risk Insurance in time of war, 31.1 – 31.18 Gulf War, 31.71 – 31.74 NATO war risks insurance scheme, 31.39 – 31.66 reinsurance agreement, 31.20 – 31.38 South Atlantic War, 31.67 – 31.70 War risks as separate from marine risks, 1.14 – 1.16 , 1.20 – 1.21 , 1.28 defined, 31.12 , 31.13 on land, 2.9 restraint, 1.17 War Risks Policy, 15.12 “all risks”, 28.41 Clause, 1.1 , 15.6 – 15.7 , 15.8 Clause, 1.1.3 , 15.9 Clause, 1.3 , 15.9 Clause, 1.4 , 15.6 – 15.7 , 15.8 Clause, 1.5 , 15.6 – 15.7 , 15.8 Clause 6.1 (Notice of Cancellation Clause), 3.9 , 3.12 , 3.15 Clause, 6.1.2 , 15.9 Clause, 7, 4.13 Clause, 7.1.2 , 15.9 Clause, 18.3 , 15.9 Clause N, 4, 3.22 F.C. & S. Clause (Freedom of Capture and Seizure Clause) liability for damage caused by mines, 15.13 Malicious Damage Clause, 1.25 – 1.26 MAR Form, 1.5 – 1.7 , 1.27 – 1.30 See also S.G. Form (Ships/Goods Form); F.C. & S. Clause (Freedom of Capture and Seizure Clause) Warlike operations, 6.1 , 6.3 exclusion of, 1.17 – 1.19 , 10.1 Warranties, 24.53 – 24.54 breech of, 3.12 under IA 2015, 24.73 – 24.83 promissory, 24.57 – 24.83 War-related perils, 18.25 – 18.26 Warsaw Pact, 31.39 , 31.43 Waterborne Agreement, 29.8 , 30.5 Wilful misconduct, 27.2 , 29.5 as contractual exclusion or public policy rule, 27.7 – 27.10 cumulative effect of, 27.35 deliberate actions, gross negligence and recklessness, 27.11 – 27.20 proof of, 27.3 – 27.4 in war risks insurance, 27.5 – 27.20 World War I, 11.53 , 11.64 – 11.66 , 31.7 World War II, 6.18 – 6.20 , 11.69 , 12.44 , 31.6 , 31.7

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