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Index

International Maritime Conventions Volume III: Protection of the Marine Environment

Page 465 Index Index Africa, West and Central 99 – 100 agents: hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 220 , 223 ; oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 131 , 133 , 141 , 142 air pollution from ships: MARPOL 73 /78 30 , 37 air-cushion vehicles 24 , 31 air-cushioned craft 43 arbitration: intervention on high seas (1969 Convention and 1973 Protocol) 16 – 17 ; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 97 , 98 Asia/Pacific Region 99 audit, waste prevention 48 Australia 9 , 193 , 194 , 196 – 7 ballast tank, corrosion prevention of seawater 39 ballast water and sediments (2004 Convention) 55 , 101 ; achieving purpose, manner of 58 – 9 ; burden of proof 58 ; ‘harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens’ 58 ; implementation 59 – 61 ; inspection 59 ; MARPOL 73 /78 and 32 ; recourse, right of 195 ; scope of application 55 – 8 ; ‘sediments’ 32 , 58 Baltic Sea area 35 bank guarantee 88 , 139 , 146 , 222 – 3 , 225 bareboat charter registration 56 bareboat charterer: civil liability for bunker oil pollution damage (2001 Convention) 193 , 194 – 5 , 199 ; civil liability for oil pollution damage (CLC 1992) 130 , 133 ; hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 220 Belgium 5 – 6 , 127 black, grey and white list 105 Black Sea area 35 , 100 bulk carriers 39 bunker oil and HNS Convention 1996 212 bunker oil pollution damage, civil liability for (2001 Convention) 101 , 189 ; basis of liability 196 ; burden of proof 195 ; enforcement of judgments 206 – 7 ; exclusions from liability 196 ; geographical scope 190 ; insurance or other financial security 93 , 195 , 199 – 205 ; international validity of certificate 203 ; jurisdiction 206 ; language of certificate 202 ; limitation of liability 93 , 196 – 9 ; ‘oil’ 190 – 1 ; parties to 189 ; person(s) liable 192 – 5 ; recognition of judgments 206 – 7 ; scope of application 190 – 2 ; ‘ship’ 190 , 191 , 203 ; ‘shipowner’ 193 – 4 ; supersession clause 207 ; time limits 202 , 205 – 6 ; time for suit 205 – 6 ; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 93 , 94 , 95 bunker oil pollution damage and CLC 1992 121 burden of proof: ballast water and sediments (2004 Convention) 58 ; bunker oil pollution damage, civil liability for (2001 Convention) 195 ; dumping of wastes (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) 46 ; Fund Convention 1992 163 , 166 – 7 , 179 ; HNS Convention 1996 218 – 19 , 237 ; intervention on high seas 11 , 20 ; MARPOL 73 /78 31 ; oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 121 , 135 , 138 , 139 – 40 , 142 , 143 , 166 ; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 93 Cameroon 11 Canada 209 – 10 , 244 ; civil liability for oil pollution 131 , 193 , 194 , 196 – 7 ; intervention on high seas 4 – 5 , 9 , 10 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 – 16 Caribbean 99 certificates: insurance or other financial security: Bunker Oil Convention 2001 201 – 4 ; insurance or other financial security: CLC 1992 144 – 50 , 151 – 2 ; insurance or other financial security: HNS Convention 1996 225 – 9 , 230 ; insurance or other financial security: wrecks (2007 Convention) 95 , 96 ; MARPOL 73 /78 30 , 33 – 4 , 36 , 37 ; SOLAS Convention 1974 39 charts, nautical 135 chemical tankers 72 , 74 – 5 civil law countries 131 , 153 , 170 classification societies 132 Coastguard vessels 44 common law countries 153 , 170 Page 466 compensation: bunker oil pollution damage, civil liability for (2001 Convention) see separate entry ; hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) see separate entry; intervention on high seas (1969 Convention and 1973 Protocol): for damage caused by measures taken 15 – 16 ; oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) see separate entry; oil pollution damage and Fund Convention see separate entry ; port state control: European Directive 2009/16/EC 109 conciliation: intervention on high seas (1969 Convention and 1973 Protocol) 16 – 17 ; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 97 construction and equipment of ships: SOLAS Convention 1974 – dangerous goods 40 consultation: dumping of wastes (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) 49 ; intervention on high seas (1969 Convention and 1973 Protocol) 10 – 13 , 25 , 26 , 49 ; removal of wrecks (2007 Convention) 83 , 87 , 90 , 91 Cook Islands 137 crew: HNS Convention 1996 220 , 223 ; intervention on high seas (1969 Convention and 1973 Protocol) 13 ; oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 131 – 2 , 141 ; standards of training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers (1978 Convention) see separate entry criminal law: MARPOL 73 /78 33 Cyprus 208 dangerous goods: European Traffic Monitoring and Information System Directive 111 – 12 ; SOLAS Convention 1974 40 dangerous or polluting goods: traffic monitoring and information system (Directive 2002/59/ EC) 111 – 14 ; see also hazardous and noxious substances data recorder system 104 , 109 Denmark 209 – 10 , 244 deregistration 81 detention of ships: MARPOL 73 /78 34 , 103 ; port state control: European Directive 2009/16/EC 109 ; port state control: Paris MoU 104 dispute settlement: intervention on high seas (1969 Convention and 1973 Protocol) 16 – 17 ; removal of wrecks (2007 Convention) 87 , 97 – 8 dumping of wastes (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) 41 – 2 ; activities regulated 44 – 5 , 80 ; annual reports 51 , 53 – 4 ; ashore, disposal from 45 ; ‘dumping’ 43 , 45 ; human health 49 ; human life, safety of 48 , 49 ; implementation 50 – 1 ; incineration 44 , 45 ; MARPOL 73 /78 and 32 , 37 ; monitor condition of seas 50 , 52 ; obligations of contracting parties 46 – 9 ; parties to 41 ; permits 47 – 8 , 49 , 50 – 3 ; polluter bears cost 46 , 47 ; precautionary approach 46 , 48 ; purpose 41 -– 2 ; records 50 , 52 ; reports to IMO 51 , 53 – 4 ; scope of application 43 – 4 , 56 ; sovereign immunity 44 ; ‘vessels and aircraft’ 43 – 4 ; ‘wastes or other matters’ 37 , 45 ejusdem generis rule 132 , 146 employees: hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 220 , 223 ; oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 131 , 141 , 142 enforcement of judgments: Bunker Oil Convention 2001 206 – 7 ; CLC 1992 154 ; HNS Convention 1996 240 – 1 estuaries 9 , 58 , 82 European Union: port state control 100 , 106 – 10 ; salvage 113 – 14 ; traffic monitoring and information system 111 – 14 exclusive economic zone 83 , 113 , 123 , 125 – 6 , 138 , 161 , 190 , 215 , 216 , 222 , 238 – 9 , 240 experts: intervention on high seas and optional advice 12 Finland 193 , 194 fire: SOLAS Convention 1974 39 fisheries 9 , 82 fishing vessels 107 , 111 fleet/naval auxiliaries 31 , 44 , 57 , 107 , 111 , 191 , 192 , 217 floating craft 6 , 7 , 31 , 43 France 81 , 83 , 117 , 146 , 209 – 10 , 244 garbage from ships: MARPOL 73 /78 30 , 37 Germany 15 , 209 – 10 , 244 government owned or operated ships used for non-commercial purposes 31 , 44 , 57 – 8 , 107 , 111 , 121 , 166 , 191 – 2 , 217 Greece 244 grey, black and white list 105 guarantee, bank 88 , 139 , 146 , 222 – 3 , 225 Guatemala 11 Gulf Region 100 harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens 58 hazard to navigation: removal of wrecks (2007 Convention) 79 , 81 – 3 hazardous and non-hazardous deficiencies: port state control 103 – 4 , 109 hazardous and noxious substances: 1996 Convention see hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation; intervention on high seas: other substances (1973 Protocol) 17 – 22 ; MARPOL 73 /78 29 , 36 ; Protocol of 2000 to 1990 OPRC Convention 26 – 8 ; SOLAS Convention 1974 40 ; see also dangerous or polluting goods hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 27 , 125 – 6 ; amendment of limits 247 – 8 ; area in which the damage caused 215 – 16 ; basis of liability 218 – 19 ; burden of proof 218 – 19 , 237 ; channelling of liability 220 ; ‘damage’ 211 ; enforcement of judgments 240 – 1 ; entry into force 246 – 7 ; Page 467 exclusions from scope of application 216 – 18 ; final clauses 244 – 8 ; history 208 – 10 ; insurance of owner 149 , 224 – 30 ; International HNS Fund 231 – 6 , 239 – 40 ; international validity of certificate 228 – 9 ; jurisdiction 238 – 40 ; language of certificate 228 ; liability of owner 218 – 30 ; limit, loss of right to 224 ; limitation of actions 236 – 8 ; limitation fund 222 – 4 ; limitation of liability of owner 220 – 4 , 247 – 8 ; nature of the damage 211 -– 12 ; ‘owner’ 218 ; recognition of judgments 240 – 1 ; scope of application 210 – 18 ; ‘ship’ 215 ; signatures 244 ; structure of 210 ; submission of data on total quantities of contributing cargo 244 – 6 ; subrogation, right of 223 , 241 – 2 ; substances causing the damage 212 – 15 ; supersession clause 207 , 243 ; termination 248 ; time limits 227 , 236 – 8 , 247 , 248 ; transitional provisions 243 ; withdrawal of the consent to be bound 246 ; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 94 hazardous ships, monitoring of (Directive 2002/59/EC) 112 – 13 high seas: hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 239 ; jurisdiction (1958 Convention) 4 , 6 ; oil pollution casualties: intervention on high seas (1969 Convention) see separate entry ; other substances: intervention on (1973 Protocol) 17 – 22 history: civil liability for oil pollution damage (CLC 1992) 117 – 19 ; Fund Convention 156 – 60 ; HNS Convention 1996 208 – 10 ; oil pollution casualties: intervention on high seas (1969 Convention) 3 -– 4 ; other substances: intervention on high seas (1973 Protocol) 17 – 19 hospital ships 44 hydrofoil boats 24 , 31 immunity, sovereign 44 , 57 , 121 , 192 incineration see dumping of wastes (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) Indonesia 11 information: dangerous goods, transport of (Directive 2002/59/EC) 112 ; port state control: information system on inspections (Paris MoU) 105 – 6 ; to coastal states on hazardous ships (Directive 2002/59/EC) 112 – 13 inspection of ships: ballast water and sediments (2004 Convention) 59 ; MARPOL 73 /78 33 – 4 , 35 ; port state control: European Directive 2009/16/EC 107 – 9 ; port state control: Paris MoU 99 , 102 – 6 insurance or other financial security 145 ; bunker oil pollution damage, civil liability for (2001 Convention) 93 , 195 , 199 – 205 ; hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 149 , 224 – 30 ; oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 95 , 122 , 141 , 143 – 52 ; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 88 , 91 , 92 , 93 , 95 – 6 , 145 insurance or other financial security (CLC 1992) 95 , 141 , 143 – 52 ; conditions of issue and validity of certificate 150 ; direct action against insurer or guarantor 150 – 1 ; evidence 146 – 8 ; international validity of certificate 150 ; language of certificate 149 ; nature and amount of security required 146 ; oil, definition of 122 ; party who is bound to insure 145 – 6 ; period of validity of certificate 149 – 50 ; ships owned by contracting State 151 – 2 ; sum insured or secured 146 interest 139 , 168 , 169 , 178 International Chamber of Shipping 194 International Fund 156 – 60 ; administration of 180 – 2 ; amount of compensation available 167 -– 70 ; burden of proof 163 , 166 – 7 , 179 ; contributions to 174 – 80 ; cooperation of contracting States 179 ; currency in which contributions must be paid 176 ; distribution where claims in excess of compensation payable 170 ; due date for contributions 179 ; establishment of 161 ; extinction of right to compensation 170 – 1 ; intervene in proceedings, right to 173 – 4 ; invoices 179 ; jurisdiction 171 -– 4 ; organisation of 180 – 2 ; owner has not constituted a fund and payment from 170 ; rules on payment of compensation 162 – 74 ; scope of application 161 ; time limits 170 – 1 , 179 , 180 ; when compensation not due from 165 – 7 ; when judgment or settlement not binding on 173 International Group of P&I Clubs 139 , 194 International HNS Fund 231 – 6 ; amount of compensation payable by 233 – 5 ; budget 235 ; conditions required for the payment by 232 ; contributions 235 – 6 ; establishment 231 ; judgments against 241 ; jurisdiction 239 – 40 ; when payment of compensation is not due 232 International Labour Organization (ILO) 106 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 135 , 136 – 7 intervention on high seas: oil pollution casualties: intervention on high seas (1969 Convention) see separate entry; other substances (1973 Protocol) 17 – 22 Ireland 5 , 193 , 194 Italy 81 , 134 Japan 9 , 129 joint and several liability 130 , 194 – 5 jurisdiction: bunker oil pollution damage, civil liability for (2001 Convention) 206 ; Fund Convention 1992 171 -– 4 ; high seas, vessels sailing on 4 , 6 ; HNS Convention 1996 238 – 40 ; oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 138 , 140 , 153 – 4 Latin America Region 99 Liberia 208 liquefied gas tankers 40 , 76 – 7 Page 468 Malta 193 , 194 MARPOL 73 /78: prevention of pollution from ships 29 – 30 , 101 , 106 , 111 ; detention of ships 34 , 103 ; ‘discharge’ 32 ; general obligations of State parties 32 – 3 ; general scope of application 30 – 1 , 56 ; ‘harmful substance’ 32 ; inspection of ships 33 – 4 , 35 ; main purpose 31 – 2 ; national law 33 ; ‘ship’ 31 ; summary of annexes 35 – 7 mediation: removal of wrecks (2007 Convention) 97 Mediterranean Sea area 35 , 100 Monaco 137 monitoring: condition of seas: dumping of wastes (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) 50 , 52 ; hazardous goods (Directive 2002/59/EC) 112 – 13 national law: ballast water and sediments (2004 Convention) 60 ; dumping of wastes (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) 42 , 43 ; Fund Convention 1992 171 , 173 , 179 ; hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 225 ; MARPOL 73 /78 33 ; oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 141 , 144 , 153 ; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 87 , 88 , 95 nautical charts 135 naval/fleet auxiliaries 31 , 44 , 57 , 107 , 111 , 191 , 192 , 217 Netherlands 16 , 165 , 209 – 10 , 244 ; civil liability for oil pollution 128 – 9 , 193 , 194 , 196 New Zealand 16 non-persistent oil 8 , 122 Norway 152 , 165 , 193 , 194 , 196 – 7 , 209 – 10 , 244 notification: Bunker Oil Convention 2001 202 ; dangerous polluting goods carried on board (Directive 2002/59/EC) 112 ; Fund Convention 1992 171 , 173 ; hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 217 ; intervention on high seas (1969 Convention and 1973 Protocol) 10 – 11 , 12 – 13 , 26 ; port state control: Paris MoU 99 , 105 ; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 83 , 86 , 91 , 92 nuclear damage 94 ; see also radioactive material offshore units 24 , 28 oil pollution and MARPOL 73 /78 29 , 30 , 35 – 6 oil pollution casualties: intervention on high seas (1969 Convention) 111 ; arbitration 16 – 17 ; ‘coastline’ 8 – 9 ; compensation for damage caused by measures taken 15 – 16 ; conciliation 16 – 17 ; conditions 7 – 10 , 82 ; crew 13 ; geographic scope 6 ; guidelines for selection of measures 13 – 15 ; history 3 – 4 ; human life, avoid risk to 13 ; ‘maritime casualty’ 4 – 6 ; obligations of State that takes measures 10 – 15 , 25 – 6 , 49 ; ‘oil’ 8 ; OPRC Convention 1990: possible conflict with 23 , 24 – 6 ; other substances (1973 Protocol) 17 – 22 , 27 ; parties to 19 ; relationship between Protocol and Convention 20 – 1 ; scope of application 4 – 7 , 20 ; ‘ship’ 6 – 7 ; time limits 17 , 22 ; updating list of other substances 21 – 2 ; voluntary discharge of oil 5 oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 46 , 117 – 19 , 216 ; ‘agent’ 131 ; amendment of the limits 137 – 8 ; basis of liability 133 – 5 ; bunker oil of dry cargo ships 189 ; burden of proof 121 , 135 , 138 , 139 – 40 , 142 , 143 , 166 ; channelling of liability 128 – 33 , 141 , 142 , 195 ; ‘charterer’ 130 , 133 ; conflict with other conventions 155 ; ‘crew’ 131 – 2 ; enforcement of judgments 154 ; geographical scope 125 – 6 ; intervention on high seas (1969 Convention) 15 – 16 ; jurisdiction 138 , 140 , 153 – 4 ; liability insurance 95 , 122 , 141 , 143 -– 52 ; limit, loss of right to 142 – 3 ; limitation fund 138 – 40 , 154 ; (distribution of) 140 – 2 , 154 ; limitation of liability of owner 135 – 40 , 142 – 3 , 221 – 2 ; ‘manager’ 133 ; ‘oil’ 8 , 121 , 122 ; ‘operator’ 133 ; ‘owner’ 127 – 8 ; person liable 127 – 33 ; ‘pollution damage’ 122 – 5 ; reasonability concept 124 ; recognition of judgments 154 ; scope of application 119 – 26 ; ‘servant’ 131 ; ‘ship’ 119 – 21 ; strict but not absolute liability 134 ; subrogation rights 141 ; supersession clause 207 ; time limits 137 , 152 – 3 ; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 93 , 94 oil pollution damage and Fund Convention 140 , 142 , 156 – 60 , 216 ; bunker oil of dry cargo ships 189 ; International Fund see separate entry; Supplementary Fund 160 , 182 – 8 oil pollution preparedness, response and cooperation (1990 OPRC Convention) 23 , 82 ; comparison of 2000 Protocol with 27 – 8 ; geographic scope 24 ; hazardous and noxious substances: 2000 Protocol 26 – 8 ; parties to 23 , 27 ; possible conflict between Intervention Convention and 23 , 24 – 6 ; scope of application 23 – 4 , 123 ; ‘ship’ 24 oil tankers 39 , 72 , 73 – 4 , 103 P&I Clubs 139 , 194 passenger ships 189 , 226 – 7 permits: dumping of wastes (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) 47 – 8 , 49 , 50 – 3 Poland 163 polluter bears cost 46 , 47 port state control: European Directive 2009/16/ EC; classification of ships 108 ; compensation 109 ; detention of ships 109 ; inspections 107 – 9 ; origin and purpose 106 – 7 ; refusal of access 109 – 10 ; ‘ship’ 107 ; ships to which it applies 107 ; time limits 108 port state control: Paris MoU 99 – 100 , 108 , 109 ; black, grey and white list 105 ; classification of ships 103 ; criteria for adherence to 100 – 1 ; detention of ships 104 ; duties and powers of port authorities 103 – 5 ; information system 105 – 6 ; inspections 99 , 102 – 6 ; organisational structure 101 ; refusal of access 105 , 110 ; ships to which it applies 102 ; signatories of 99 ; time limits 103 , 104 , 105 Page 469 port state control agreements 99 – 100 ; port state control: European Directive 2009/16/EC see separate entry; port state control: Paris MoU see separate entry precautionary approach: dumping of wastes (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) 46 , 48 proportionality: intervention on high seas (1969 Convention and 1973 Protocol) 13 , 14 – 15 ; removal of wrecks (2007 Convention) 81 radioactive material 211 – 12 , 216 – 17 records: ballast water and sediments (2004 Convention) 59 ; dumping of wastes (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) 50 , 52 registration of ships 56 , 81 , 99 ; bareboat charter registration 56 ; Flag and State of 43 reporting: dumping of wastes (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) 51 , 53 – 4 ; Fund Convention 1992: contributions 174 – 5 ; incidents and accidents at sea (Directive 2002/59/EC) 113 ; removal of wrecks (2007 Convention) 89 Romania 16 Russian Federation 208 ; see also Soviet Union safety of life at sea (1974 SOLAS Convention) 38 – 40 , 100 , 106 , 111 salvage 44 ; EU: ships in need of assistance 113 – 14 ; hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 220 ; oil pollution, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 133 ; oil, voluntary discharge of 5 ; ‘vessel’ 119 – 20 ; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 81 , 82 , 87 , 92 – 3 Scandinavian delegations 127 , 163 ; see also Denmark; Finland; Norway; Sweden Scotland 164 sewage from ships: MARPOL 73 /78 30 , 37 ship, meaning of: bunker oil pollution damage, civil liability for (2001 Convention) 190 , 191 , 203 ; HNS Convention 1996 215 ; intervention on high seas (1969 Convention and 1973 Protocol) 6 – 7 ; MARPOL 73 /78 31 ; oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 119 – 21 ; oil pollution preparedness, response and cooperation (1990 OPRC Convention) 24 ; port state control: European Directive 2009/16/ EC 107 ships, prevention of pollution from (MARPOL 73 /78) 29 – 30 , 101 , 106 , 111 ; detention of ships 34 , 103 ; ‘discharge’ 32 ; general obligations of State parties 32 – 3 ; general scope of application 30 – 1 , 56 ; ‘harmful substance’ 32 ; inspection of ships 33 – 4 , 35 ; main purpose 31 – 2 ; national law 33 ; ‘ship’ 31 ; summary of annexes 35 – 7 slot charterer 133 South Africa 193 , 194 , 196 – 7 sovereign immunity 44 , 57 , 121 , 192 sovereignty, State 16 Soviet Union: civil liability for oil pollution 128 , 134 , 135 ; intervention on high seas 13 , 16 ; see also Russian Federation Spain 6 Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) 135 – 7 , 157 standards of training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers (1978 Convention) 101 ; chemical tankers 72 , 74 – 5 ; emergency, occupational safety, security, medical care and survival functions 77 – 8 ; engine department 67 – 72 ; liquefied gas tankers 76 – 7 ; master and deck department 63 – 6 ; oil tankers 72 , 73 – 4 ; ports of State party 62 ; special requirements 72 – 7 ; watchkeeping 78 State owned or operated ships used for noncommercial purposes 31 , 44 , 57 – 8 , 107 , 111 , 121 , 166 , 191 -– 2 , 217 structure of ships: SOLAS Convention 1974 39 , 40 submersibles 24 , 31 subrogation rights 141 – 2 , 223 , 241 – 2 supersession clause 207 , 243 Supplementary Fund 160 ; contributions to 187 – 8 ; entry into force and claims in respect of which available 183 – 4 ; establishment of 182 – 3 ; extinction of right to compensation 186 ; rules governing payment by 184 – 6 surveys: SOLAS Convention 1974 39 Sweden 8 , 135 , 192 , 193 , 194 , 196 Syria 5 tanker, definition of 39 territorial waters 4 , 6 ; bunker oil pollution damage, civil liability for (2001 Convention) 190 , 200 ; Fund Convention 161 ; hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 215 , 216 , 238 – 9 , 240 ; oil pollution damage, civil liability for 125 – 6 , 138 , 222 ; oil pollution preparedness, response and cooperation (1990 OPRC Convention) 24 ; wrecks 79 , 83 , 86 – 7 , 93 – 4 time charterer 133 time limits: Bunker Oil Convention 2001 202 , 205 – 6 ; Fund Convention 1992 170 – 1 , 179 , 180 ; hazardous and noxious substances: liability and compensation (1996 Convention) 227 , 236 – 8 , 247 , 248 ; intervention on high seas (1969 Convention and 1973 Protocol) 17 , 22 ; oil pollution damage, civil liability for (CLC 1992) 137 , 152 – 3 ; port state control: European Directive 2009/16/EC 108 ; port state control: Paris MoU 103 , 104 , 105 ; wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 96 – 7 Torrey Canyon 3 , 14 , 117 tourism 9 , 83 traffic monitoring and information system: European Directive 2002/59/EC 111 – 14 ; ‘dangerous goods’ 111 – 12 Page 470 training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers, standards of (1978 Convention) 101 ; chemical tankers 72 , 74 – 5 ; emergency, occupational safety, security, medical care and survival functions 77 – 8 ; engine department 67 – 72 ; liquefied gas tankers 76 – 7 ; master and deck department 63 – 6 ; oil tankers 72 , 73 – 4 ; ports of State party 62 ; special requirements 72 – 7 ; watchkeeping 78 Turkey 244 United Kingdom 117 , 118 ; civil liability for oil pollution 124 , 131 , 135 , 193 , 194 , 196 – 7 ; deregistration 81 ; Headquarters of Fund 1992 172 , 176 ; intervention on high seas 3 , 7 , 11 , 14 United States: civil liability for oil pollution 121 , 126 , 129 , 131 , 134 ; intervention on high seas 3 , 12 , 16 USSR: civil liability for oil pollution 128 , 134 , 135 ; intervention on high seas 13 , 16 ; see also Russian federation voyage charterer 133 voyage data recorder system 104 , 109 warships 31 , 44 , 57 – 8 , 107 , 111 , 121 , 166 , 191 , 192 , 203 , 217 wastes, dumping of (1972 Convention as amended by 1996 Protocol) 41 – 2 ; activities regulated 44 – 5 , 80 ; annual reports 51 , 53 – 4 ; ashore, disposal from 45 ; ‘dumping’ 43 , 45 ; human health 49 ; human life, safety of 48 , 49 ; implementation 50 – 1 ; incineration 44 , 45 ; MARPOL 73 /78 and 32 , 37 ; monitor condition of seas 50 , 52 ; obligations of contracting parties 46 – 9 ; parties to 41 ; permits 47 – 8 , 49 , 50 – 3 ; polluter bears cost 46 , 47 ; precautionary approach 46 , 48 ; purpose 41 – 2 ; records 50 , 52 ; reports to IMO 51 , 53 – 4 ; scope of application 43 – 4 , 56 ; sovereign immunity 44 ; ‘vessels and aircraft’ 43 – 4 ; ‘wastes or other matters’ 37 , 45 watchkeeping 78 West and Central Africa 99 – 100 whale oil 122 white, grey and black list 105 wrecks, removal of (2007 Convention) 79 ; coastline or related interests 82 – 3 ; consultation 83 , 87 , 90 , 91 ; Convention area 83 ; costs 88 , 90 , 93 – 5 ; criteria for determining whether hazard 84 – 6 ; dispute settlement 87 , 97 – 8 ; exceptions to liabilities: owner 93 , 94 – 5 ; general obligations of State to be complied with when becomes party to 88 ; geographical scope 83 , 86 – 7 ; ‘hazard’ 81 – 3 ; insurance or other financial security 88 , 91 , 92 , 93 , 95 – 6 , 145 ; location 90 ; marking 90 – 1 ; MARPOL 73 /78 and 32 ; obligations and liabilities of owner 92 – 5 ; obligations of State in whose Convention Area wreck located 90 – 2 ; party who may determine whether wreck poses hazard 83 ; reporting obligation 89 , 91 ; scope of application 79 – 87 ; territorial sea 79 , 83 , 86 – 7 , 93 – 4 ; time limits 96 – 7 ; ‘wreck’ 80 – 1

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