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Index

York Antwerp Rules

Page 385 Index Index AAA see Association of Average Adjusters (AAA) Abandonment of voyage circumstances where ship owner or carrier is entitled to abandon, 12.19 – 12.25 commercial total loss, 12.22 crew, discharge of, 23.06 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.64 , 22.76 – 22.80 frustration of contract, 12.23 – 12.25 Non-Separation Clause, 22.78 perils, in position of, 22.76 – 22.80 port of loading, at, 12.18 port of refuge, at, 12.18 temporary repairs, 26.54 – 26.55 time and place of adjustment, 12.18 – 12.27 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.05 – 23.06 , 23.26 – 23.28 Absorption clauses, 38.01 – 38.09 BIMCO clause, 38.06 – 38.07 hull and machinery insurance, 38.01 – 38.07 insurance, 38.01 – 38.07 International Hull Clauses, 38.07 – 38.09 liner trade, 38.02 sacrifice of interests other than ship, 38.05 security, collection of, 38.01 – 38.04 standard clauses, 38.06 – 38.09 Accidental damage, standard clauses accident, definition of, 22.13 entry into port due to accident, sacrifice or other extraordinary circumstances, 23.32 , 23.35 expenses, 22.13 – 22.15 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.32 , 23.35 York-Antwerp Rules 2004, background to, App2 Accommodation, costs of, 23.53 Accounts interest, 33.26 payment on account, 33.26 repairs, deductions in costs of, 25.13 special accounts, payment of deposits into, 34.04 , 34.07 – 34.08 Accrual of cause of action, 35.05 Adjustment see also Time and place of adjustment (Rule G) amount to be made good for cargo lost or damaged by sacrifice, 28.21 – 28.24 contribution, 9.06 , 9.08 , 9.18 contributory value, 29.09 – 29.12 , 37.04 currency, 33.06 , 33.20 , 33.27 – 33.39 end, when allowances, 33.21 – 33.22 freight, value of, 29.48 interest, 33.06 , 33.20 , 33.27 – 33.39 responsible for, 37.01 salvage, 18.41 – 18.47 security, 37.01 , 37.02 , 37.03 ships, damage to, 30.09 – 30.13 Admixture of cargo, 8.16 Affreightment, contracts of, 9.02 Agency of necessity, 18.36 , 32.02 – 32.03 AIDE (Association Internationale de Dispacheurs Européens) see AMD (Association Mondiale de Dispacheurs) Air-freighting spare parts, costs of, 11.28 Allowances, issue of, 7.16 AMD (Association Mondiale de Dispacheurs) Reports, 2.15 , 2.17 , 2.28 , 2.38 York-Antwerp Rules 1974, 2.15 York-Antwerp Rules 1994, 2.27 Tork-Antwerp Rules 2004, 2.38 York-Antwerp Rules 2016, 3.14 , 3.18 Amount to be made good for cargo lost or damaged by sacrifice (Rule XVI), 28.01 – 28.24 adjustment, 28.21 – 28.24 Antwerp Rule, 28.01 calculation, method of, 28.06 contribute to general average, amount made good for sacrificial loss or damage must, 28.21 – 28.24 contributory values, 28.04 , 28.10 , 28.14 Page 386 depreciation, 28.18 , 28.22 exceed value goods would have had if remained on board, amount cannot, 28.16 – 28.20 freight, 28.12 hypothetical salvage, 28.19 invoice value, 28.07 – 28.11 , 28.18 , 28.23 – 28.24 jettison, 28.18 – 28.19 market value invoice value, 28.07 – 28.11 , 28.18 , 28.23 – 28.24 place where adventure ended, at, 28.02 – 28.11 prior termination of adventure, 28.23 original destination, voyage ending at place other than, 28.03 prior termination of adventure, 28.23 – 28.24 sacrifice bears risks of voyage, loss by, 28.15 – 28.20 sale of damaged cargo, 28.22 , 28.24 salvage awards, 28.19 – 28.20 time of discharge, value at, 28.10 , 28.12 valuation of cargo, 28.09 York-Antwerp Rules 1890, 28.23 York-Antwerp Rules 1924, 28.07 , 28.23 York-Antwerp Rules 1950, 28.23 Amsterdam Conference 1949, 2.12 – 2.13 Amsterdam, ordinance of, 1.07 Anchors or cables, 25.11 Anti-trust laws, 34.04 Antwerp Conference, 2.07 Apportionment Common User Apportionment, 7.11 Rule of Interpretation, 4.08 salvage, 18.01 , 18.06 , 18.45 , 18.60 ships, damage to, 30.13 , 30.25 towing, 7.11 Arbitration Average Bond, 34.02 , 37.06 Centrocon Arbitration Clause, 35.04 , 35.06 , 35.08 salvage, 18.31 , 18.61 time bar, 35.11 Artificial general average, 23.26 Association Internationale de Dispacheurs Européens see AIDE (Association Internationale de Dispacheurs Européens) Association Mondiale de Dispacheurs see AMD (Association Mondiale de Dispacheurs) Association of Average Adjusters (AAA), App8 cash deposits, 34.04 English law, general average in, 1.11 environmental damage, 23.83 – 23.86 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.22 interest, 33.02 machinery and boilers, damage to, 19.01 Rules of Practice, App8 ships, valuation of, 29.26 – 9.27 substituted expenses, 11.03 – 11.16 temporary repairs, 26.06 , 26.33 , 26.41 , 26.51 – 26.55 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.07 York-Antwerp Rules 1924, 2.09 Average adjusters see Association of Average Adjusters (AAA) Average Bond, 37.06 , Lloyd’s arbitrators, 34.02 cash deposit, 37.06 general average security documents, 37.18 jurisdiction clause, 37.13 Lloyd’s Standard Form of Salvage Agreement copy of, App4 exchange controls, 37.07 time bar for contributions, 35.07 – 35.08 security, 37.03 – 37.06 , 37.13 time bar for contributions, 35.07 – 35.09 Average disbursements see Insurance, of average disbursements Average Disbursements Clause, 39.22 Average Guarantee, copy of, App5 Background to York-Antwerp Rules 2004, 2.32 AIDE position paper, 2.38 Berlin conference 1998, 2.32 Comité Maritime International, 2.32 , 2.35 , 2.40 common safety, 2.33 International Union of Marine Insurance, 2.32 Marine Insurance Act 1906, 2.33 national maritime law associations, 2.35 , 2.41 questionnaire to maritime law associations, 2.35 Remé, Latron and Levy Working Group (CMI), 2.35 , App3 Salvage remuneration, 2.34 summary of rules, 2.40 temporary repairs, 2.34 Baily Thesis, 26.12 Baltic and International Maritime Council see BIMCO (Baltic and International Maritime Council) Page 387 Baltime form, 29.49 Bank charges, 32.07 Banknotes, 29.15 Barges under tow, 7.04 – 7.11 Berlin conference, 2.32 Bigham Clauses (Rule G), 12.07 , 12.32 , 12.42 Bills of lading currency, 33.30 , 33.34 , 33.36 delivery of cargo at port or place named in bill of lading, 12.14 – 12.17 Hague Rules, 35.05 Hague-Visby Rules, 35.05 incorporation, 2.04 – 2.05 interest, 33.30 , 33.34 , 33.36 jettison without bills, 31.01 liner bills, 34.03 time and place of adjustment, 12.14 – 12.17 time bar for contributions, 35.05 – 35.06 undeclared or wrongfully declared cargo, 31.01 York & Antwerp Rules, 2.05 BIMCO (Baltic and International Maritime Council) absorption clauses, 38.06 – 38.07 York-Antwerp Rules 2016, reaction to, 3.35 BMLA (British Maritime Law Association), 23.83 – 23.86 Boilers see Machinery and boilers, damage to (Rule VII) Bottomry definition, 32.04 funds, provision of, 32.02 , 32.04 – 32.06 , 32.12 , 32.17 – 32.18 insurance, 32.04 Bottom treatment, 25.07 , 25.18 – 25.20 Breakage and chafing, 14.01 British Maritime Law Association (BMLA), 23.83 – 23.86 Bunkers see also Fuels and stores discharge, costs of, 22.34 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.15 , 22.34 lightening, 20.11 shifting, costs of, 22.34 ships, valuation of, 29.22 shortages, 22.15 substituted expenses, 11.18 value, 29.22 Burden of proof contribution, 9.13 – 9.14 unseaworthiness, 9.13 – 9.14 Burden of proof (Rule E), 10.01 – 10.11 average adjusters delay, 10.03 evidence, 10.03 , 10.11 – 10.14 challenge, estimates, right to, 10.13 – 10.14 contribution, 10.01 – 10.11 cut-off provisions, 10.09 – 10.14 declarations of general average, 10.10 delay, 10.03 , 10.09 estimates of value, 10.13 – 10.14 evidence, production of, 10.01 – 10.11 Lloyd’s Open Form, 10.11 notification, 10.10 recoveries from third parties, 10.15 value, particulars of contributory, 10.11 – 10.14 York-Antwerp Rules 1924, 10.08 Cabin stewards, wages and maintenance of, 23.54 Cables or anchors, 25.11 Canada barges under tow, 7.05 damage to cargo in discharging etc, 24.19 delivery at port of refuge, demands for, 12.35 – 12.37 Non-Separation Clause, 12.35 – 12.37 towage, 7.05 – 7.11 Cargo see also Cargo, ship’s materials and stores used for fuel (Rule IX); see also Cargo, value of ; see also Forwarded to destination, values where cargo ; see also Jettison ; see also Loss or damage to cargo admixture, 8.16 containers, 13.14 , 29.15 , 29.38 delivery at port of refuge, demands for, 12.35 – 12.37 funds, provision of, 32.18 – 32.19 Non-Separation Clause, 12.35 – 12.37 notification, 12.34 , 12.40 on board, handling, 22.31 – 22.62 restowage, 22.56 – 22.62 retention on board ship, 12.41 sacrifices, 1.13 sale to raise funds, 32.18 – 32.19 security, 12.38 towage, 7.04 York-Antwerp Rules 2016, 21.01 – 21.12 Cargo’s contribution, 37.01 Cargo, ship’s materials and stores used for fuel (Rule IX), 21.01 – 21.12 ‘cargo . . . necessarily used for fuel,’ 21.10 common safety, 21.11 credited with estimated cost of fuel which would have been consumed, 21.02 , 21.07 , 21.12 oil, 21.01 peril, ships in, 21.09 , 21.11 sufficient fuel provided, where, 21.09 time charterparties, 21.12 Page 388 undeclared or wrongfully declared cargo, 31.01 – 31.05 Cargo, value of carriage contracts, 29.35 c&f, goods sold, 29.34 cif, goods sold, 29.33 , 29.40 containers, 29.38 contract or carriage, 29.41 contributory value, 29.09 – 29.10 , 29.33 – 29.40 delivery, value at time of, 29.39 – 29.40 fob price, 29.35 freight, 29.34 – 29.36 , 29.40 – 29.44 insurance premiums, 29.34 packages, 29.38 salvage, 29.01 time of discharge, at, 29.37 – 29.40 transhipment coast, 29.42 York-Antwerp Rules 1924, 29.37 York-Antwerp Rules 1950, 29.37 Carriage contracts see also Bills of lading; Charterparties affreightment, contracts of, 9.02 cargo, value of, 29.34 freight, 29.35 incorporation, 12.37 Non-Separation Clause, 12.37 Cash deposits see also Cash deposits, treatment of (Rule XXII) guarantees, 37.08 Lloyd’s Average Bond, 37.06 Lloyd’s Form of Deposit Receipt, 37.07 receipt, 37.07 security, 37.06 – 37.08 Cash deposits, treatment of (Rule XXII), 34.01 – 34.11 Association of Average Adjusters, 34.04 average adjusters arbitrators, average bonds making, 34.02 Europe, 34.1 office or representation, 34.09 United Kingdom, 34.09 United States, 34.05 , 34.07 CMI Guidelines, 34.14 Questionnaire, 34.12 collection, 34.01 – 34.11 currency, 34.11 currency control regulations, 34.15 depositor, property, 34.16 disbursements, 34.08 Europe, 34.10 joint bank accounts due to money laundering and anti-terrorist legislation, 34.13 liner bills of lading, 34.03 possessory liens for unpaid freight and general average, 34.01 sacrifice of cargo, 34.02 security, 34.01 – 34.03 special account, paid into, 34.04 , 34.07 – 34.08 United Kingdom, 34.09 United States, 34.05 , 34.07 Cattlemen, wages and maintenance of, 23.54 Causation breaking the chain of causation, 8.08 , 8.23 , 24.18 ‘caused by,’ 24.13 ‘caused in the act of,’ 24.15 damage to cargo in discharging etc, 24.13 , 24.15 , 24.18 ‘directly caused by,’ 24.13 – 25.15 intervening acts, 20.02 Centrocon Arbitration Clause, 35.04 , 35.06 , 35.08 Chafing and breakage, 14.01 Charterparties contributory value, 29.29 currency, 33.30 , 33.34 , 33.36 incorporation, 2.04 – 2.05 interest, 33.30 , 33.34 , 33.36 long-term charters, 29.29 salvage, 29.29 ships, valuation of, 29.29 time bar for contributions, 35.03 – 35.04 time charters, 21.12 , 29.46 – 29.49 , 32.11 , 32.27 voyage charters, 29.46 – 29.47 York & Antwerp Rules, 2.05 Cleaning the bottom, 25.18 – 25.19 CMI (Comité Maritime International), York–Antwerp Rules 2004 IWG, changes to provision, 7.15 questionnaire, 7.14 Remé, Latron and Levy Working Group (CMI), 2.35 , App3 Sydney Conference 1994, 2.29 , 8.34 York-Antwerp Rules 1950, 2.12 York-Antwerp Rules 1974, 2.02 York-Antwerp Rules 1994, background to, 2.26 – 2.26 York-Antwerp Rules 2004 background to, 2.32 , 2.35 – 2.40 CMIguidelines, general average, App3 Collisions, 22.44 – 22.45 Comité Maritime International see CMI (Comité Maritime International) Page 389 Commencement of actions, 35.11 Commercial total loss, 12.22 , 30.11 , 30.13 Commission fuels and stores, 32.11 , 32.27 funds, provision of, 32.07 – 32.09 , 32.11 , 32.27 – 32.28 York-Antwerp Rules 2004, background to, 32.28 Common adventure, 1.17 , 39.01 Common benefit temporary repairs, 26.27 York-Antwerp Rules 2004, background to, App3 Common safety see also Common safety, loss or damage by sacrifices for the (Rule II) absorption clauses, 38.05 common adventure, 39.01 common benefit, App3 definition of general average, 6.04 , 6.06 – 6.10 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.16 – 22.18 , 22.39 – 22.50 , 22.56 – 22.59 , 22.62 , 22.68 , 22.79 ‘intentionally run ashore for the common safety,’ 17.12 – 17.13 lightening, 20.02 peril, in position of, 21.11 , 22.39 – 22.50 port, measures taken for common safety when vessel is in, 22.39 – 22.50 port of refuge, 12.39 salvage, 23.63 – 23.77 temporary repairs, 26.10 , 26.20 – 26.22 , 26.27 voluntary stranding, 17.12 – 17.13 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.10 , 23.25 , 23.35 , 23.74 – 23.77 , 23.84 York-Antwerp Rules 2004, background to, 2.34 , App3 Common safety, loss or damage by sacrifices for the (Rule II 1994), 14.01 – 14.13 chafing and breakage, 14.01 freight, loss of, 14.13 hatches, water down the, 14.03 jettison, consequences of acts of, 14.01 – 14.05 legitimately on board ships, property which is, 14.11 – 14.12 ‘property involved in the common maritime adventure,’ 14.11 Rule Paramount, 14.01 third party claims, 14.10 York-Antwerp Rules 1974, 14.09 Community of interest, 12.27 , 22.51 , 22.53 Comparative texts York-Antwerp Rules 2004 compared with 1994 Rules, App2 York Rules 1864 to York-Antwerp Rules 1994, comparison of, App2 Compounding of engines, 19.04 Condemnation of ships expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.64 , 22.75 , 22.77 , 22.79 – 22.80 temporary repairs, 26.13 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.05 – 23.06 , 23.26 – 23.28 , 23.47 Consequences rule (Rule C), 8.01 – 8.24 Admixture of cargo, 8.16 breaking the chain of causation, 8.08 , 8.23 contract, liability under, 8.21 – 8.24 costs, 8.22 delay, consequences of, 8.03 , 8.39 demurrage, 8.36 – 8.37 direct consequences, 8.08 – 8.17 English common law, 8.08 environment, 8.05 , 8.25 – 8.34 preventive measures, 8.29 – 8.30 , 8.33 remediation, 8.31 United States, 8.33 exceptions, 8.35 – 8.40 foreseeability, 8.01 general consequences, 8.12 – 8.17 indirect consequences, 8.08 , 8.40 loss of market, 8.06 , 8.38 Lowndes test, 8.09 , 8.18 Marine Insurance Act 1906, 8.18 market price, lower, 9.12 remoteness, 8.09 salvage, 8.22 third parties, liability to, 8.18 – 8.20 tow contracts, 8.21 – 8.24 UK Standard Towage Conditions, 8.22 – 8.24 Ulrich test, 8.10 , 8.14 , 8.18 , 8.23 York-Antwerp Rules 1890, 8.15 York-Antwerp Rules 1924, 8.03 , 8.19 Consolado del Mare, 1.07 Constructive total loss expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.75 ships, damage to, 30.04 – 30.05 , 30.11 , 30.13 Containers contributory value, 29.15 deck cargo, 13.14 jettison, 13.14 value of cargo, 29.38 Contract see also Bills of lading ; see also Carriage contracts ; see also Charter parties consequences rule, 8.21 – 8.24 frustration, 12.23 – 12.25 , 12.41 , 22.78 – 22.80 incorporation, 2.01 , 2.04 – 2.05 , 2.11 , 7.13 salvage, 18.25 , 18.28 , 18.36 time bar for contributions, 35.01 towage, 7.13 , 8.21 – 8.24 Page 390 Contribution see also Contribution (Rule D) ; see also Time bar for contributions (Rule XXIII) amount to be made good for cargo lost or damaged by sacrifice, 28.21 – 28.15 burden of proof, 10.01 – 10.11 contributory value, 29.16 – 29.17 jettison of goods without bills of lading, 31.01 salvage, 18.06 security, 37.03 – 37.12 substituted expenses, 11.19 – 11.21 undeclared or wrongfully declared cargo, 31.01 , 31.04 Contribution (Rule D), 9.01 – 9.21 adjustment, settlements under, 9.06 , 9.08 , 9.18 affreightment, contracts of, 9.02 burden of proof, 9.13 – 9.14 defences, 9.04 English common law, 9.08 – 9.09 fault, 9.09 – 9.19 Hague-Visby Rules, 9.11 Hamburg Rules, 9.05 Harter Act, 9.02 insurance, 9.15 – 9.16 Jason Clause, 9.21 P&I Clubs, 9.16 remedies, 9.05 third parties, 9.17 – 9.19 United States, 9.20 – 9.21 unseaworthiness, 9.11 – 9.15 , 9.20 – 9.21 Contributory value see also Contributory value (Rule XVII) amount to be made good for cargo lost or damaged by sacrifice, 28.21 – 28.24 burden of proof, 10.11 – 10.14 charter, ships under long-term, 29.29 Contributory value (Rule XVII 1994), 29.01 – 29.51 ‘actual net values of property,’ 29.15 adjustment, 29.09 – 29.12 amount made good, addition of, 29.16 – 29.17 assessment, 29.09 – 29.51 banknotes, 29.15 cargo, value of, 29.09 – 29.10 , 29.33 – 29.40 containers, 29.15 contribution, 29.16 – 29.17 environmental damage under Salvage Convention 1989, 29.12 extra charges, 29.14 salvage payments, 29.18 forwarded to destination, where cargo, 29.50 – 29.51 freight, 29.05 – 29.06 , 29.44 – 29.49 Glasgow Resolutions, 29.01 – 29.02 jettison, 29.17 mail, 29.12 , 29.15 market value, evidence of, 29.01 motor vehicles, passengers’ accompanied, 29.12 , 29.15 munitions, 29.15 navigational equipment, 29.15 net values, 29.15 Non-Separation provisions, 29.12 passage-money at risk, 29.05 – 29.06 passengers’ luggage and personal effects, 29.06 , 29.15 salvage cargo value, 29.01 environmental damage under Salvage Convention 1989, 29.12 ship, value of, 29.09 , 29.21 – 29.32 simplification of general average, 29.09 trade samples, 29.15 United States, 29.07 valuation, 29.21 – 29.51 wireless equipment, 29.15 Costs consequences rule, 8.22 Rule Paramount, 5.12 salvage, 18.49 – 18.50 , 18.60 – 18.63 Crew see also Wages and maintenance of crew (Rule XI) ; see also Wages and maintenance of crew (Rule XI) definition, 23.54 depletion, 22.15 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.15 master and crew, consultation between, 1.07 Mediterranean, customs of, 1.07 Currency bills of lading, 33.30 , 33.34 , 33.36 cash deposits, 34.11 charterparties, 33.30 , 33.34 , 33.36 convenience, currency of, 33.34 interest, 33.06 , 33.08 – 33.10 , 33.20 , 33.27 – 33.39 SDRs, 33.10 , 33.36 – 33.37 United States, 33.29 Custom Amsterdam, ordinance of, 1.07 Consolado del Mare, 1.07 damage to cargo in discharging etc, 24.01 deck cargo, 13.05 , 13.12 Farmannalog (Norse sea law), 1.07 jettison, 13.05 , 13.12 – 13.14 Justinian’s Digest, 1.05 Laws of Visby, 1.07 Mediterranean, customs of, 1.07 – 1.09 Middle Ages, 1.07 – 1.10 Page 391 repairs, deductions of costs of, 25.01 – 25.02 , 25.11 Rolls of Oleron, 1.07 average adjusters, practice of, 23.06 , 24.15 Canada, 24.19 ‘caused by,’ 24.13 chain of causation, 24.18 Custom of Lloyd’s, 24.01 deterioration of perishable cargoes, 24.13 ‘directly caused by,’ 24.13 – 25.15 examples, 24.12 foreseeability, 24.14 , 24.17 – 24.18 fuels and stores, 24.08 Glasgow Resolution, 24.04 incompetence or inefficiency, 24.18 ‘in consequence of their,’ 24.15 ‘in the act of,’ 24.12 – 24.13 , 24.15 – 24.15 negligence, 24.18 – 24.19 refloating, 24.02 supervening events, 24.17 – 24.18 uniformity, 24.16 United Kingdom, 24.01 York Rule 1864, 24.05 Damage to ships see Ships, damage to (Rule XVIII) Deck cargo containers, 13.14 custom, 13.05 , 13.12 jettison, 13.02 – 13.14 timber, 13.04 – 13.07 Definition of general average see also Definition of general average (Rule A) English law, general average in, 1.12 Marine Insurance Act 1906, 1.12 Definition of general average (Rule A), 6.01 – 6.15 common safety, 6.04 , 6.06 – 6.10 completion of voyage, 6.04 expenses, 6.14 – 6.15 intentionally and reasonably made or incurred, 6.04 , 6.11 – 6.13 Marine Insurance Act 1906, 6.02 – 6.03 , 6.08 peril, preservation from, 6.08 – 6.10 Rule of Interpretation, 6.04 successful, whether act had to be, 6.12 – 6.13 York-Antwerp Rules 1924, 6.01 , 6.03 – 6.04 , 6.06 , 6.09 , 6.14 Delay average adjusters, 10.03 burden of proof, 10.03 , 10.09 consequences rule, 8.22 salvage, 23.41 security, provision of, 23.41 strikes, 23.41 wages and maintenance of crew, 12.35 weather conditions, 23.41 Delivery at port of refuge, demands for, 12.35 – 12.37 Demolition, ship sold for, 30.14 Demurrage, 8.36 – 8.37 Deposits see also Cash deposits, treatment of (Rule XXII) general average deposit receipt, text of, App4 Rule of Interpretation, 4.08 Depreciation amount to be made good for cargo lost or damaged by sacrifice, 28.18 , 28.22 repairs, 30.25 sale, 30.24 ships, damage to, 30.09 , 30.11 , 30.15 , 30.22 – 30.25 Detention entry into port of refuge or return to port of loading, following, 23.32 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.74 extra periods, 22.74 , 23.36 , 23.39 – 23.41 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.32 Deterioration of cargo, 24.13 Deviation, 23.18 , 23.20 – 23.21 Directive to Marking Surveyors, text of, App9 Disbursements Average Disbursements Clause, 32.33 cash deposits, 34.08 estimates, 32.24 funds, provision of, 32.05 , 32.07 – 32.08 , 32.12 – 32.27 , 32.19 – 32.24 insurance, 12.11 Discharging cargo expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.04 , 22.31 – 22.62 precautionary measures, costs of, 23.79 – 23.82 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.81 – 23.82 Discovered at port, damage see Prior damage rule Docking/undocking at night time or on holiday, 11.28 Doubt, Norwegian NMLA, 7.14 Dowdall draft code, 2.09 Drydocking expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.49 – 22.50 repairs, 25.07 , 25.18 – 25.20 , 30.21 ships, damage to, 30.20 – 30.21 substituted expenses, 11.46 – 11.48 Emergencies, 32.01 – 32.02 Engineers, 23.54 , 25.13 – 25.17 Engines bedplates, 25.12 compounding, 19.04 repairs, deductions of costs of, 25.12 Page 392 English law, general average in, 1.11 – 1.13 Association of Average Adjusters, Rules of Practice of, 1.11 cargo and freight sacrifices, 1.13 definition of general average, 1.12 examples of general average sacrifices and expenditure, 1.13 expenditure, 1.13 Ordonnance de la Mer of 1681, 1.11 ship’s materials sacrifice, 1.13 Entering ports allowable, where expenses of, 23.23 detention following entry into port of loading or refuge, 23.32 environment, 23.77 – 23.78 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.02 , 22.04 , 22.07 – 22.31 , 22.46 , 22.59 loading, return to port of, 23.32 oil booms placed around ship as condition of entry, 23.79 port of refuge, 22.02 , 22.04 , 22.07 – 22.31 , 22.46 , 22.59 , 23.32 , 30.19 port or place, any, 23.77 – 23.78 salvage, 23.77 – 23.78 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.23 , 23.77 – 23.78 Environmental damage Association of Average Adjusters, 23.83 – 23.86 British Maritime Law Association, 23.83 – 23.86 common safety, 23.75 – 23.77 , 23.84 consequences rule, 8.05 , 8.26 – 8.34 contributory value, 29.12 costs of measures undertaken to prevent or minimise damage, 23.63 – 23.86 discharge or loading of cargo, cost of precautionary measures associated with, 23.81 – 23.79 entry into or departure from any port of place, 23.77 – 23.78 guarantees, 23.85 oil booms placed around ship as condition of entry, 23.79 P&I Clubs, 23.73 , 23.85 – 23.86 preventive measures, 8.29 – 8.30 , 8.33 remediation, 8.31 salvage contributory value, 29.12 special compensation, 29.30 – 29.32 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.75 – 23.77 York-Antwerp Rules 1994, 18.19 – 18.20 , 18.23 , 18.28 – 18.29 ships, valuation of, 29.30 – 29.32 special compensation, 18.23 , 18.28 , 29.30 – 29.32 uniformity, 23.71 United States, 8.33 voluntary stranding, 17.16 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.63 – 23.86 York-Antwerp Rules 2016, 18.19 – 18.20 , 18.23 , 18.28 – 18.29 Estimates burden of proof, 10.13 – 10.14 credited with estimated cost of fuel which would have been consumed, 21.02 , 21.07 , 21.12 repairs, 30.10 , 30.25 ships, damage to, 30.10 , 30.25 ships, valuation of, 29.21 Europe cash deposits, 34.01 Italian Code of Navigation, 18.41 salvage, 18.41 Evidence average adjusters, 10.03 , 10.11 – 10.14 burden of proof, 10.01 – 10.11 market value, 29.01 ships, damage to, 30.23 Exchange rates, 33.27 – 33.39 Expenditure, 1.13 , 6.14 – 6.15 , 12.11 – 12.12 Expenses see also Expenses at port of refuge etc (Rule X) ; see also Substituted expenses, principle of (Rule F) air-freighting spare parts, costs of, 11.28 contingent values, 29.45 , 29.47 – 29.48 definition of general average, 6.14 – 6.15 expenditure, substitution of word, 6.14 – 6.15 freight, value of, 29.45 , 29.47 – 29.48 lightening, 20.01 – 20.11 precautionary measures, 23.79 – 23.82 salvage, 18.23 – 18.24 , 18.29 , 18.50 variance of laws and practice in different countries, 1.14 Expenses at port of refuge etc (Rule X), 22.01 – 22.80 abandonment of voyage, 22.64 , 22.76 – 22.80 accident, definition of, 22.13 accident, sacrifice or other extraordinary circumstances, arising in consequence of, 22.13 – 22.15 allowances following measures, continuation of, 22.46 – 22.50 Association of Average Adjusters, 22.22 average adjusters, 22.22 , 22.30 bunkers discharge, costs of, 22.34 shifting, costs of, 22.34 shortages, 22.15 Page 393 collisions, 22.44 – 22.45 common safety, necessary for the, 22.16 – 22.18 , 22.39 – 22.50 , 22.56 – 22.59 , 22.62 , 22.68 , 22.79 community of interest, 22.51 , 22.53 condemnation of ship, 22.64 , 22.75 , 22.77 , 22.79 – 22.80 constructive total loss, 22.75 crew depletion of, 22.15 wages and maintenance, 22.22 , 22.24 , 22.28 , 22.45 , 22.55 , 22.59 , 22.66 detention, extra periods of, 22.74 discharging cargo, 22.04 , 22.31 – 22.62 discovery of damage to ship at port of loading or call, 22.51 – 22.55 dry docking for repairs, 22.49 – 22.50 entering port, expenses of, 22.02 , 22.04 , 22.07 – 22.31 , 22.46 , 22.59 expenses, corresponding, 22.21 explosions, 22.43 extraordinary circumstances, definition of, 22.15 , 22.19 fire extinguishing, 22.43 insurance, 22.64 , 22.71 – 22.73 freight, 22.02 frustration, 22.78 – 22.80 fuel consumed, 22.45 , 22.55 , 22.59 storage and reloading, 22.62 – 22.80 handling cargo on board, costs of, 22.31 – 22.62 insurance, 22.28 , 22.64 , 22.71 – 22.73 interpretation, 22.24 – 2.31 latent defects, 22.54 leaving a port, 22.02 , 22.07 – 22.31 , 22.59 lightening, 22.69 Lloyd’s Open Form, rewards under, 22.29 master, duty of, 22.18 Non-Separation Clause, 22.78 outward port charges as specific charge on freight, 22.02 peril, ships in, 22.39 – 22.50 , 22.76 – 22.80 pilotage, 22.28 port, measures taken for common safety when vessel is in, 22.39 – 22.50 port of refuge, definition of, 22.17 port or place, definition of, 22.02 reloading of cargo, 22.02 removal, costs of, 22.28 – 22.31 repairs, 22.17 – 22.18 , 22.22 – 2.23 , 22.25 – 2.31 , 22.47 – 22.54 , 22.61 restowage of shifted cargo, 22.56 – 22.62 Rule X(a), 22.06 – 22.31 Rule X(b), 22.31 – 22.62 Rule X(c), 22.62 – 22.80 sacrifice, definition of, 22.14 second port for repairs, removal to, 22.30 – 22.31 storage of cargo, expenses of, 22.02 , 22.62 – 22.80 stores consumed, 22.45 , 22.55 , 22.59 storage and reloading, 22.62 – 22.80 towage, 22.23 , 22.28 – 2.29 wages and maintenance of crew, 22.22 , 22.24 , 22.28 , 22.45 , 22.55 , 22.59 , 22.66 warehouse rent, 22.01 , 22.70 wear and tear, 22.12 weather conditions, avoiding adverse, 22.19 – 22.21 Extra, meaning of, 11.13 – 11.14 Extraordinary circumstances definition, 22.15 , 22.19 entry into port due to accident, sacrifice or other extraordinary circumstances, 23.32 , 23.35 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.15 , 22.19 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.32 , 23.35 Extra period of detention, 22.74 , 26.24 Farmannalog (Norse sea law), 1.07 Fault contribution, 9.09 – 9.19 peril and fault, difference between, 21.09 Fire on board ship, 15.01 – 15.18 average adjusters, practice of, 15.03 – 15.05 bulk cargo, 15.07 – 15.15 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.43 extinguishing fire, 15.01 – 15.18 , 22.43 , 23.37 heat of the fire amendment, 15.15 – 15.17 insurance, 22.64 , 22.71 – 22.73 mistake, 15.18 smoke damage, 15.09 – 15.10 , 15.15 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.37 Flotilla Doctrine, 7.07 , 7.09 Foreseeability consequences rule, 8.01 damage to cargo in discharging etc, 24.14 , 24.17 – 24.18 lightening, 20.08 Forwarded to destination, values where cargo assessment of value, 29.50 – 29.51 contributory value, 29.50 – 29.51 Non-Separation Agreements, 12.41 – 12.42 , 29.50 – 29.51 Rule of Interpretation, 29.51 Page 394 substituted expenses, 11.05 – 11.16 , 11.12 , 11.37 – 11.44 time and place for valuation of cargo, 12.27 , 29.51 Fraud, 17.04 , 31.01 Freight see also Loss of freight (Rule XV) adjustment, 29.48 amount to be made good for cargo lost or damaged by sacrifice, 28.12 Baltime form, 29.49 cargo value, 29.44 carriage contracts, 29.35 carrier, at risk of, 29.44 – 29.45 common safety, 14.13 contingent expenses, 29.45 , 29.47 – 29.48 contributory value, 29.44 – 29.49 definition, 27.09 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.02 outward port charges, 22.02 possessory liens, 34.01 sacrifice, 1.13 time charters, 29.46 – 29.49 value, 29.34 – 29.36 , 29.40 – 29.49 voluntary stranding, 17.14 voyage charters, 29.46 – 29.47 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.17 , 29.45 , 29.47 – 29.48 Frustration, 12.41 , 22.78 – 22.80 Fuels and stores see also Bunkers commission, 32.11 , 32.27 credited with estimated cost of fuel which would have been consumed, 21.02 , 21.07 , 21.12 damage to cargo in discharging etc, 24.08 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.45 , 22.55 , 22.59 , 22.62 – 22.80 funds, provision of, 32.11 , 32.27 lightening, 20.01 – 20.11 oil, 21.01 storage and reloading, 22.62 – 22.80 sufficient fuel provided, where, 21.09 York-Antwerp Rules 1994, 21.01 – 21.12 Funds, provision of (Rule XX 1994 Rules), 32.01 – 32.24 Average Disbursements Insurance, 32.12 , 32.19 – 32.23 bank charges, 32.07 bottomry, 32.02 , 32.04 – 32.06 , 32.12 , 32.17 – 32.18 bunkers, 32.27 cargo sold to raise funds, 32.17 – 32.19 commission, 32.07 – 32.09 , 32.11 , 32.27 – 32.28 disbursements, 32.05 , 32.07 – 32.08 , 32.12 – 32.27 , 32.19 – 32.24 emergencies, 32.01 – 32.02 fuels and stores, commission on, 32.11 , 32.27 governing the adjustment, law, 32.18 insurance, 32.12 , 32.29 – 32.24 Lloyd’s Open Form, 32.28 masters, 32.01 – 32.03 , 32.18 necessity, agent of, 32.02 – 32.03 respondentia, 32.02 , 32.04 – 32.06 sacrificial damage, 32.26 salvage rewards, 32.28 time charterers, commission and, 32.07 United Kingdom, 32.07 , 32.23 , 32.28 United States, 32.09 , 32.23 wages and maintenance of crew, commission on, 32.11 , 32.27 York-Antwerp Rules 1924, 32.08 General average deposits, App10 General average security, 37.01 Glasgow Resolutions contributory value, 29.01 – 29.02 damage to cargo in discharging etc, 24.04 uniformity, 2.03 – 2.04 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.02 , 23.13 Governing law, 4.09 , 32.18 Guarantees Average Guarantee, copy of, App5 cash deposits, 37.08 jurisdiction, 37.13 Salvage Guarantee Forms, copies of, APP7 security, 37.06 , 37.08 – 37.13 time bar for contributions, 35.07 – 35.09 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.85 Hague Rules, 35.05 Hague-Visby Rules, 9.11 , 35.05 Hamburg Rules, 9.06 Handling cargo on board, costs of, 22.31 – 22.62 Harter Act, 9.20 Hatches, water down the, 14.03 Henderson v Shankland principle, 30.15 – 30.17 Henry V, 3.34 Hull insurance absorption clauses, 38.01 – 38.07 ships, damage to, 30.19 temporary repairs, 26.56 ICS (International Chamber of Shipping), 2.41 Incorporation bills of lading, 2.04 – 2.05 , 2.11 charterparties, 2.04 – 2.05 Page 395 towage contracts, 7.13 uniformity, 2.01 York & Antwerp Rules, 2.01 , 2.05 , 2.11 York Rules 1864, 2.04 Indemnities, 25.01 Inflation, 30.20 Insurance absorption clauses, 38.01 – 38.11 Average Disbursements Clause, 32.33 , 39.01 – 39.22 cargo, value of, 29.34 contribution, 9.15 – 9.16 disbursements, 12.11 , 32.29 – 32.24 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.28 , 22.64 , 22.71 – 22.73 fire, 22.64 , 22.71 – 22.73 funds, provision of, 32.12 , 32.29 – 32.24 hull insurance, 26.56 – 26.58 , 38.01 – 38.07 indemnities, 25.01 International Hull Clauses, 38.07 – 38.09 machinery and boilers, damage to, 19.16 perils of sea, 30.08 P&I clubs, 22.60 , 23.73 , 23.85 – 23.86 repairs, 25.01 , 26.56 – 26.58 respondentia, 32.04 temporary repairs, 26.56 – 26.58 time and place of adjustment, 12.11 Insurance, of average disbursements Adjusters’ Clauses, 39.20 adjustment, 39.13 assessment of the salvage remuneration, 39.04 Average Disbursements Clauses, 39.22 average disbursements insurance, 39.18 coverage, 39.15 general average expenditure, 39.01 Institute clauses principal forms of, 39.19 Insurance of Average Disbursements, 39.17 liability for salvage charges of underwriters insuring, 39.08 liability of the salved interests, 39.03 liability of the salved interests to pay the salvage remuneration, 39.07 maritime jurisdictions, 39.02 obligation of the parties inter se to contribute, 39.05 purpose of, 39.16 Salvage Association’s Clauses, 39.21 security to salvors, 39.09 solution, 39.15 values assessed for salvage purposes, 39.06 variation in values market forces, 39.14 volunteer salvage, 39.12 York-Antwerp Rules, 39.10 – 39.13 Intention definition of general average, 6.11 ‘intentionally run ashore for the common safety,’ 17.12 – 17.13 machinery and boilers, damage to, 19.11 – 19.13 masters, acts of, 6.11 refloating, 19.11 – 19.13 voluntary stranding, 17.12 – 17.13 Interest see Interest on losses made good in general average (Rule XXI) Interest on losses made good in general average (Rule XXI 2004) Interest on losses made good in general average (Rule XXI), 33.02 – 33.39 account, payment on, 33.26 adjustment currency of, 33.06 , 33.20 , 33.27 – 33.39 date when interest will start to run, 33.19 – 33.20 end, when allowances, 33.21 – 33.22 Association of Average Adjusters, 33.02 average adjusters, 33.02 , 33.22 , 33.30 , 33.35 – 3.36 begin, when allowances, 33.19 – 33.20 bills of lading, currency and, 33.30 , 33.34 , 33.36 calculation, extension of time for, 33.07 charterparties, currency and, 33.30 , 33.34 , 33.36 commercial influences on currency, 33.03 controversy, 33.01 convenience, currency of, 33.34 currency, 33.06 , 33.20 , 33.27 – 33.39 date when interest will start to run, 33.19 end, when allowances, 33.21 – 33.22 English practice, 33.21 , 33.29 exchange rates, 33.27 – 33.39 interim payments, 33.26 legal rate, 33.02 – 33.04 rate fluctuating, 33.04 legal, 33.02 – 33.04 standard, 33.05 time for calculation, extension of, 33.07 SDR interest rate, 33.38 SDRs, currency and, 33.36 – 3.37 United Kingdom, 33.26 , 33.29 United States, 33.03 , 33.26 , 33.29 Interest on losses made good in general average (Rule XXI) Rate annual rate, guidelines on, 33.13 currency, 33.08 – 33.11 Page 396 fixed rate, 33.12 LIBOR, 33.12 variation, 33.08 website, 33.13 SDRs, 33.01 International Hull Clauses (IHC), 38.07 – 38.09 International Union of Marine Insurance see IUMI (International Union of Marine Insurance) Interpretation see Rule of Interpretation Intervening acts, 20.02 Italian Code of Navigation, 18.41 IUMI (International Union of Marine Insurance) York-Antwerp Rules 1994, 2.29 – 2.30 York-Antwerp Rules 2004, 2.32 , 2.35 York-Antwerp Rules 2016, 3.04 , 3.14 , 3.22 , 3.26 , 3.35 Jason Clause, 9.02 Jettison see also Jettison of cargo (Rule I) bills of lading, without, 31.01 common safety, 14.01 – 14.05 contribution, 31.01 contributory value, 29.17 freight, loss of, 27.14 – 27.15 undeclared or wrongfully declared cargo, 31.01 voluntary stranding, 17.14 Jettison of cargo (Rule I), 13.01 – 13.14 containers, 13.14 custom, 13.05 , 13.12 – 13.14 deck cargo, 13.02 – 13.14 timber cargoes on deck, 13.04 – 13.07 under-deck, from, 13.01 Jurisdiction, 37.12 – 37.13 Justinian’s Digest, 1.05 – 1.06 Laundry, 23.52 – 23.53 Laws of Visby, 1.07 Legitimately on board ships, property which is, 14.11 – 14.12 Lettered rules freight, loss of, 27.01 general rules, 2.01 Makis agreement, 2.10 , 4.05 – 4.06 , 4.10 – 4.15 numbered rules, relationship with, 2.10 , 4.03 – 4.15 Rule of Interpretation, 4.03 – 4.07 , 4.10 – 4.15 York-Antwerp Rules 1924, 4.03 LIBOR, 33.12 Liens freight, 34.01 maritime liens, 37.21 , 37.23 possessory liens, 34.01 salvage, 37.21 , 37.23 Lightening, 22.69 see also Lightening a ship when ashore and consequent damage, expenses incurred (Rule VIII) Lightening a ship when ashore and consequent damage, expenses incurred (Rule VIII), 20.01 – 20.11 ‘any loss or damage to the property . . . in consequence thereof,’ 20.08 – 20.09 bunkers, 20.11 common safety, 20.02 ‘discharged as a general average act,’ 20.06 – 20.07 examples of loss and damage admitted, 20.09 extra costs, 20.07 foreseeability, 20.08 fuel, discharging, 20.01 – 20.11 intervening acts, 20.02 peril, ships in, 20.02 refloating, 20.07 – 20.08 , 20.11 stores, discharging, 20.01 – 20.11 third parties, 20.04 ‘to property involved in the common maritime adventure,’ 20.10 – 20.11 Liner shipping, 34.03 Liverpool Conference, 2.06 Lives, saving, 18.26 Lloyd’s see also Lloyd’s Standard Form of Salvage Agreement (LOF) Average Bond, 35.07 – 35.08 , 37.03 – 37.06 , App4 Custom of Lloyd’s, 24.01 damage to cargo in discharging etc, 24.01 Form of Deposit Receipt, 37.07 Lloyd’s Average Bond, 37.03 – 37.06 cash deposit, 37.06 copy, App4 time bar for contributions, 35.07 – 35.08 Lloyds Average Bond (LAB 77) Lloyd’s form of general average deposit receipt, App4 Lloyd’s Average Bond (LAB 77), 37.03 Lloyd’s Standard Form of Salvage Agreement (LOF) burden of proof, 10.11 copy, App6 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.29 funds, provision of, 32.28 LOF 2011, 18.32 no cure no pay, 18.31 , 18.45 , 23.75 procedural rules, text of, App6 Page 397 security, 37.02 ships, valuation of, 29.03 special compensation for environmental damage, 18.28 Lloyd’s Standard Form of Salvage Agreement -LOF 2011, App6 Loading see Loading, port of ; see Reloading Loading, port of abandonment of voyage, 12.18 detention following entry into port, 23.32 Non-Separation Clause, 12.39 prior damage, 22.51 – 22.55 temporary repairs, 26.25 , 26.33 time and place of adjustment, 12.18 LOF see Lloyd’s Standard Form of Salvage Agreement (LOF) Long-term charter, ships under, 29.29 Loss see Jettison ; see Loss of freight (Rule XV) ; see Loss of market ; see Loss or damage to cargo Loss of freight (Rule XV), 27.01 – 27.15 average adjusters, 27.07 definition of freight, 27.09 England, 27.03 jettison, 27.14 – 27.15 lettered rules, 27.01 made good, 27.08 new freight, credit for, 27.13 – 27.15 not incurred, deductions for charges, 27.12 partial loss, 27.11 – 27.12 Loss of market, 8.06 , 8.38 Loss or damage to cargo see also Jettison amount to be made good for cargo lost or damaged by sacrifice, 28.01 – 28.24 average adjusters, practice of, 23.06 , 24.15 Canada, 24.19 chain of causation, 24.18 common safety, 14.01 – 14.13 Custom of Lloyd’s, 24.01 deterioration of perishable cargoes, 24.13 examples, 24.12 expenses, 22.04 , 22.31 – 22.62 foreseeability, 24.14 , 24.17 – 24.18 fuels and stores, 24.08 incompetence or inefficiency, 24.18 interest, 33.02 – 33.39 lightening, 20.08 – 20.09 negligence, 24.18 – 24.19 refloating, 24.02 sale of damaged cargo, 28.22 , 28.24 supervening events, 24.17 – 24.18 uniformity, 24.16 United Kingdom, 24.01 Loss, pro-rated proportion, 37.17 Lowndes test, 8.09 , 8.18 Machinery and boilers, damage to (Rule VII), 19.01 – 19.17 ‘ashore and in position of peril,’ 19.07 – 19.10 Association of Average Adjusters, 19.01 auxiliaries, definition of, 19.05 compounding of engines, 19.04 definition of machinery, 19.05 insurance, 19.16 intention to refloat ship, 19.11 – 19.13 peril, in a position of, 19.07 – 19.10 reasonableness, 19.13 refloating ship, 19.01 – 19.17 Rule Paramount, 19.13 working propelling machinery and boilers, damage caused by, 19.14 – 19.17 Mail, 29.12 , 29.15 Maintenance see Wages and maintenance of crew (Rule XI) Makis agreement, 4.05 – 4.06 , 4.10 – 4.15 Marine insurance see Insurance ; see IUMI (International Union of Marine Insurance) ; see Marine Insurance Act 1906 Marine Insurance Act 1906 consequences rule, 8.18 definition of general average, 1.12 , 6.02 – 6.03 , 6.08 peril, preservation from, 6.08 repairs, deductions of costs of, 25.01 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.01 Maritime liens, 18.40 , 37.21 , 37.23 Market value contributory value, 29.01 evidence, 29.01 invoice value, 28.07 – 28.11 , 28.18 , 28.23 – 8.24 place where adventure ended, at, 28.02 – 28.11 prior termination of adventure, 28.23 ships, valuation of, 29.23 , 29.25 – 9.26 Marking surveyors, directive, App9 Masters consultation between crew and master, 1.07 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.18 funds, provision of, 32.01 – 32.03 , 32.18 Mediterranean, customs of, 1.07 restowage of shifted cargo, 22.06 Masts or spars, 16.01 – 16.09 Mediterranean, customs of, 1.07 – 1.09 Middle Ages, general average in the, 1.07 – 1.10 Misdescriptions, 31.03 – 31.04 Mistake, 15.18 Motor vehicles, 29.12 , 29.15 Moves for repairs, 22.30 – 22.31 , 25.18 – 25.20 , 26.34 Page 398 Munitions, 29.15 National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, letter from, 2.02 – 2.03 National maritime law associations questionnaires, 2.22 , 2.23 – 2.26 , 2.35 Navigational equipment, 29.15 Necessity, agency of, 18.36 , 32.02 – 32.03 Negligence, 24.18 – 24.19 New for old deductions, 25.06 – 25.10 , 25.12 New Testament, general average act in, 1.06 No cure, no pay, 18.23 , 18.28 , 18.31 , 18.45 , 23.75 Non-Separation Agreements, 37.14 see also Non-Separation clause (Rule G) abandonment of voyage, 22.78 contributory value, 29.12 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.78 forwarded to destination, assessment of values where cargo, 29.50 – 29.51 frustration, 22.78 Non-Separation clause (Rule G), 12.01 , 12.07 , 12.27 – 12.50 Bigham Clause, 12.07 , 12.32 , 12.42 , 12.43 Canada, 12.35 – 12.37 cargo interests delivery at port of refuge, demands for, 12.35 – 12.37 notification, 12.34 , 12.40 carriage contracts, incorporation into, 12.35 CMI Conference in 2016, 12.43 community of interest, 12.27 costs, cap, 12.47 , 12.48 delivery at port of refuge, demands for, 12.35 – 12.37 effect of clause, 12.49 forwarding cargo to destination, 12.41 – 12.50 frustration, 12.41 H&M insurance, 12.44 port of loading, put back to, 12.39 port of refuge common safety, put into port for, 12.39 delivery at port of refuge, demands for, 12.35 – 12.37 repairs, 12.39 , 12.41 , 12.49 restrictions, 12.39 – 12.50 retention of cargo on board ship, 12.41 security, 37.14 standard forms, 12.33 , 12.50 United States, 12.07 , 12.32 , 12.35 Vancouver Conference in 2004, 12.08 wages and maintenance of crew, 12.46 , 12.49 Norse sea law (Farmannalog), 1.07 Norway, 7.12 Notice of claims, 4.08 Numbered rules lettered rules, 2.10 , 4.03 – 4.15 Makis Agreement, 2.10 , 4.05 – 4.06 , 4.10 – 4.15 particular rules, as, 2.01 Rules of Interpretation, 4.03 – 4.15 Oil booms placed around ship as condition of entry, 23.79 Ordinance of Amsterdam, 1.07 Ordonnance de la Mer of 1681, 1.11 Origins of general average, 1.04 – 1.06 Overheating of engines, 26.24 Overtime, 11.28 , 23.49 , 23.64 Painting of bottom, 25.18 – 25.20 Paramount Rule see Rule Paramount Passage-money, 29.05 – 29.06 Passengers luggage and personal effects, 29.06 , 29.15 motor vehicles, passengers’ accompanied, 29.12 , 29.15 Peril, in position of abandonment of voyage, 22.76 – 22.80 common safety, 21.11 , 22.39 – 22.50 definition of general average, 6.08 – 6.10 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.39 – 22.50 , 22.76 – 22.80 fault, difference between peril and, 21.09 lightening, 20.02 machinery and boilers, damage to, 19.07 – 19.10 Marine Insurance Act 1906, 6.08 restowage of shifted cargo, 22.57 Rule of Interpretation, 4.04 – 4.05 , 4.11 – 4.15 United States, 4.11 – 4.15 Petty average, 1.08 P&I clubs, 22.60 , 23.73 , 23.85 – 23.86 Pilotage, 22.28 Place of adjustment see Time and place of adjustment (Rule G) Port charges, 1.14 – 1.15 , 23.42 – 23.45 , 23.60 sub-rule deficient, 23.62 The Trade Green, 23.60 , 23.61 Port of loading see Loading, port of Port of refuge see also Expenses at port of refuge etc (Rule X) abandonment of voyage, 12.18 common safety, 12.39 definition, 22.17 delivery at port of refuge, demands for, 12.26 – 12.27 detention following entry into port, 23.32 entering port, 22.02 , 22.04 , 22.07 – 22.31 , 22.46 , 22.59 , 23.32 , 30.19 Page 399 interruption of voyage at port of refuge, 12.27 Non-Separation Clause, 12.39 part of cargo left behind, 12.26 permanent repairs cannot be effected at port of refuge, where, 26.44 – 26.46 repairs, 26.23 , 26.25 , 26.33 , 26.36 – 26.46 , 30.19 ships, damage to, 30.19 temporary repairs, 26.23 , 26.25 , 26.33 , 26.36 – 26.44 time and place of adjustment, 12.18 , 12.26 towage to destination, 11.04 , 11.12 , 11.49 – 11.50 transhipment, 11.05 – 11.06 , 11.12 , 11.37 – 11.44 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.01 – 23.86 , 23.11 , 23.14 Port or place, definition of, 22.20 Possessory liens, 18.40 , 34.01 , 37.01 Precautionary measures, costs of, 23.79 – 23.82 Prior damage rule expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.51 – 22.55 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.26 – 23.28 , 23.46 Propelling machinery and boilers, damage caused by working, 19.14 – 19.17 Public policy, 4.09 Purpose of general average, 1.02 , 1.04 Pushing another vessel or vessels see Towing or pushing another vessel or vessels (Rule B) Questionnaires, 2.08 , 2.22 – 2.29 , 2.35 , 3.13 , 3.15 , 7.14 , 8.26 , 10.06 , 12.33 , 18.13 , 23.66 , 23.71 , 25.06 , 25.09 , 26.16 , 26.52 , 32.15 , 33.14 , 22.27 , 34.12 Reasonableness definition of general average, 6.04 , 6.11 – 6.13 deliberate damage to ship, 5.11 machinery and boilers, damage to, masters, acts of, 6.13 Rule Paramount, 5.08 – 5.12 sacrifice, 5.08 – 5.12 salvage, 18.49 , 18.62 ships, damage to, 30.19 – 30.20 , 30.22 substituted expenses, 11.32 – 11.35 Reconditioning expenses, 33.17 Refloating damage to cargo in discharging etc, 24.02 intention, 19.11 – 19.13 lightening, 20.07 – 20.08 , 20.11 machinery and boilers, damage to, 19.01 – 19.17 Refuge, port of see Port of refuge Reloading expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.02 fuel and stores, 22.62 – 22.80 Remoteness, 8.09 Removal expenses, 22.28 – 2.40 Repairs see also Repairs, deductions in costs of (Rule XIII) ; see also Temporary repairs (Rule XIV) comparison of available options, 11.36 deferred, repairs which can be, 30.19 depreciation, 30.25 docking/undocking at night time or on holiday, 11.28 drydocking, 22.49 – 22.50 , 30.21 estimates, 30.10 , 30.25 excess of apparent value, repairs in, 29.23 – 9.28 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.17 – 22.18 , 22.22 – 2.23 , 22.25 – 22.31 , 22.47 – 22.54 , 22.61 frustration, 12.24 latent defects, 22.54 moves for repairs, 22.30 – 22.31 , 25.18 – 25.20 , 26.34 Non-Separation Clause, 12.39 , 12.41 , 12.49 overtime of crew, 11.28 overtime of shore labour, 11.28 port, movement of vessel in, 11.28 port of refuge, 22.17 , 30.19 reasonable costs, 30.19 – 30.20 , 30.22 riding repairers, employment of, 11.28 second port for repairs, removal to, 22.30 – 22.31 ships, damage to, 30.01 – 30.25 ships, valuation of, 29.21 , 29.23 – 9.28 substituted expenses, 11.04 – 11.05 , 11.08 , 11.11 , 11.26 – 11.28 , 11.36 , 11.49 superintendent or agent to expedite repairs, employment of, 11.28 towage to destination, 11.49 during voyage, repairs effected, 29.27 wages and maintenance of crew, 12.49 , 23.17 – 23.18 , 23.26 , 23.34 , 23.39 , 23.43 , 23.53 Repairs, deductions in costs of (Rule XIII), 25.01 – 25.24 15 years old, where ship is over, 25.13 accounts, examination of, 25.13 anchors or cables, 25.11 average adjusters, 25.02 , 25.13 – 25.17 , 25.21 – 25.22 bottom treatment, 25.07 , 25.18 – 25.20 Page 400 cleaning the bottom, 25.18 – 25.19 credit for old materials, 25.21 – 25.24 custom, 25.01 – 25.02 , 25.11 drydock charges, 25.07 , 25.18 – 25.20 engine bedplates, replacement of, 25.12 engineers, consultation of, 25.13 – 25.17 indemnities under marine insurance policies, 25.01 iron or steel ships, introduction of, 25.02 , 25.11 Marine Insurance Act 1906, 25.01 modernisation/simplification, 25.09 moves for repairs, 25.18 – 25.20 national practices, 25.04 new for old deductions, 25.06 – 25.10 , 25.12 painting of bottom, 25.18 – 25.20 practice, 25.13 – 25.24 progressive scale, 25.02 , 25.11 replacement of old parts, increase in value of ship due to, 25.12 sacrificial damage, 25.11 , 25.13 , 25.20 shifting the ships, 25.07 slipway dues, 25.18 surveyors, consultation of, 25.13 – 25.17 uniformity, 25.14 United Kingdom, 25.01 , 25.22 United States, 25.22 – 25.24 wear and tear, 25.12 Repatriation of crew, 11.45 Replacement of old parts, increase in value of ship due to, 25.12 Respondentia definition, 32.04 funds, provision of, 32.02 , 32.04 – 32.06 insurance, 32.04 Restowage expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.56 – 22.62 master, supervision of the, 22.06 P&I clubs, 22.06 shifted cargo, 22.56 – 22.62 United States, 22.56 Retention of cargo on board ship, 12.41 Rhine Rules, 7.02 – 7.03 Rhodian Law, 1.05 Riding repairers, employment of, 11.28 Rolls of Oleron, 1.07 Rule of Interpretation, 4.01 – 4.16 allowances, 4.07 – 4.08 , 4.10 apportionment, 4.08 definition of general average, 6.04 deposits, treatment of, 4.08 documentation, 4.08 forwarded to destination, assessment of values where cargo, 29.51 governing law, 4.09 inconsistencies, overriding, 4.09 lettered rules, 4.03 – 4.07 , 4.10 – 4.15 Makis agreement, 4.05 – 4.06 , 4.10 – 4.15 numbered rules, relationship with, 4.03 – 4.15 York-Antwerp Rules 1924, 4.03 Makis agreement, 4.05 – 4.06 , 4.10 – 4.15 mandatory laws, 4.09 notice of claims, 4.08 peril, prerequisite of, 4.04 – 4.05 , 4.11 – 4.15 public policy, 4.09 Rule Paramount, 4.10 , 4.16 substituted expenses, 11.02 time and place of adjustment, 12.17 United States, 4.11 – 4.15 York-Antwerp Rules 1950, 4.06 Rule Paramount, 5.01 – 5.12 allowances, 5.02 – 5.03 common safety, 14.01 costs, 5.12 machinery and boilers, damage to, 19.13 reasonableness, 5.08 – 5.12 , 11.32 – 11.34 Rule of Interpretation, 4.10 , 4.16 , 5.01 , 5.04 , 5.09 – 5.10 salvage, 5.12 , 18.01 substituted expenses, 11.29 – 11.34 temporary repairs, 26.49 – 26.55 UNCTAD, 5.07 United States, 5.01 – 5.07 , 11.32 Sacrifice see also Common safety absorption clauses, 38.05 accident, sacrifice or other extraordinary circumstances, 22.13 – 22.15 , 23.32 , 23.35 amount to be made good for cargo lost or damaged by sacrifice, 28.01 – 28.24 cargo, 1.13 cash deposits, 34.02 consent of owners, 1.04 – 1.06 definition, 22.14 deliberate damage to ship, 5.12 depreciation, 30.24 entry into port, 23.32 , 23.35 , 23.78 – 23.79 expenditure, distinguished from, 12.11 – 12.12 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.13 – 22.15 freight, 1.13 funds, provision of, 32.26 Justinian’s Digest, 1.05 – 1.06 net proceeds, 30.18 reasonableness, 5.08 – 5.12 repairs, deductions for, 25.11 , 25.13 , 25.20 Rhodian Law, 1.05 Rule Paramount, 5.08 – 5.12 Page 401 ships, damage to, 30.19 – 30.20 , 30.22 ship’s materials, 1.13 temporary repairs, 26.10 , 26.22 – 26.26 time and place of adjustment, 12.11 – 12.12 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.32 , 23.35 Safety see Common safety Sailing ships, 16.01 – 16.03 Sale cargo, 28.22 , 28.24 , 32.17 – 32.19 demolition, ship sold for, 30.14 funds, provision of, 32.17 – 32.19 ships, damage to, 30.18 , 30.24 Salvage, reward see also Salvage (Rule VI) amount to be made good for cargo lost or damaged by sacrifice, 28.19 – 28.21 cargo, value of, 29.01 charter, ships under long-term, 29.29 common safety, 23.75 – 23.77 comparison with general average, 1.03 consequences rule, 8.22 contributory value, 29.12 delay for providing security, 23.41 environmental damage, special compensation, 29.30 – 29.32 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.75 – 23.77 funds, provision of, 32.28 Guarantee Form, copy of, App7 long-term charter, ships under, 29.29 no cure no pay, 23.75 reward funds, provision of, 32.28 York-Antwerp Rules 2004, background to, 25.04 Salvage Convention, 2.20 , 29.12 security, 37.02 , 37.23 ships, valuation of, 29.29 – 29.32 special compensation for environmental damage, 29.30 – 29.32 successful, whether act had to be, 6.13 towage, 7.11 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.75 – 23.77 Salvage (Rule VI ), 18.01 – 18.50 adjustment, admission of salvage payments into general average, 18.41 – 18.47 aggregate of liabilities, 18.03 apportionment, 18.01 , 18.44 , 18.60 arbitration, 18.31 , 18.61 average adjusters, 18.46 – 18.47 , 18.61 comparison with general average, 1.03 contracts, 18.25 , 18.28 , 18.36 contractual/legal liability, 18.53 costs, 18.49 – 18.50 , 18.60 – 18.63 differential settlements by cargo and ship interests, problem of, 18.59 – 18.63 English law, 18.44 – 18.47 environmental damage, 18.19 – 18.20 , 18.23 , 18.28 – 18.29 Europe, 18.41 expenses, 18.23 – 18.24 , 18.29 , 18.50 , 18.57 failure of 2004 Rules, 18.12 International Sub-Committee, 18.09 interrelationship with general average, 18.38 – 18.40 ISC meetings, 18.17 Italian Code of Navigation, 18.41 IUMI working group, 18.06 , 18.07 , 18.15 IWG’s Questionnaire, 18.13 lives, saving, 18.26 Lloyd’s Forms of Salvage Agreement (LOF), 18.28 , 18.30 – 18.37 , 18.45 loss/damage, 18.54 maritime liens on property saved, 18.04 Montreal Compromise, 18.28 necessity, agent of, 18.36 no cure, no pay, 18.23 , 18.28 , 18.31 , 18.45 payment, 18.58 reasonableness, 18.49 , 18.62 reward, payment of, 18.21 – 18.22 , 18.26 , 18.29 , 18.39 – 18.63 Rule Paramount, 18.48 – 18.50 sacrifices, 18.56 sails, damage to, 18.01 Salvage Convention 1989, 18.04 – 18.37 enforcement, 18.31 entry into force, 18.27 , 18.30 environmental damage, 18.23 , 18.28 – 18.29 LOF, incorporation by reference into, 18.30 – 18.37 special compensation for environmental damage, 18.23 , 18.28 useful result, services must have a, 18.39 salvage payments, 18.08 special compensation for environmental damage, 18.23 , 18.28 stakeholders, 18.11 , 18.15 sub-rule, 18.51 time and place of assessment of value, 18.04 total loss, ransom for, 18.38 under contract/otherwise, 18.52 uniformity, 18.01 United Kingdom, 18.44 – 18.47 , 18.61 United States, 18.42 – 18.43 useful result, services must have a, 18.39 value, assessment of, 18.04 Vancouver Conference in 2004, 18.06 volunteers, persons must be, 18.04 security, 37.23 Page 402 Salvage Guarantee Forms, App7 Saving lives, 18.26 Savings to general average substituted expenses, 11.05 – 11.11 , 11.51 – 11.52 temporary repairs, 26.06 , 26.08 – 26.09 , 26.44 Schadee Commission, 2.15 Scientists, wages and maintenance of, 23.54 Scrap value, 29.26 , 29.28 SDRs (special drawing rights), 33.10 , 33.36 – 33.37 Seafarers see Wages and maintenance of crew (Rule XI) Seaworthiness burden of proof, 9.13 – 9.14 contribution, 9.11 – 9.15 , 9.20 Hague-Visby Rules, 9.11 Harter Act, 9.20 ships, damage to, 30.20 , 30.22 United States, 9.20 – 9.21 Security see Guarantees ; see Liens ; see Security for general average Security, cargo, 37.03 BIMCO Average Bond Clause 2007, 37.19 general average absorption coverage, 38.10 , 38.11 general average security, 38.01 beneficiary, 38.03 BIMCO Standard General Average Absorption Clause, 38.07 Clause, 38.08 – 38.09 customer relations, 38.02 sacrifice of interests, 38.05 Salvage Guarantee Form I.S.U.2, 37.23 salvage security, 37.20 adequate, 37.21 under LOF, 37.22 Security documentation, 37.15 Security for general average burden of proof, 10.10 cash deposits, 34.01 – 34.03 liner bills, 34.03 Security for general average, 37.01 – 37.14 absorption clauses, 38.01 – 38.05 adequate security, 37.03 adjustment, 37.01 Average Bond, 37.03 – 37.06 , 37.13 cash deposits, 37.06 – 37.08 contribution, 37.03 – 37.12 guarantees, 37.06 , 37.08 – 37.13 jurisdiction, 37.12 – 37.13 ‘legally due,’ 37.01 Lloyd’s Average Bond, 37.03 – 37.06 Lloyd’s Form of Deposit Receipt, 37.07 Non-Separation Agreement, 37.14 possessory liens over cargo, 37.01 salvage, 37.02 shipowners, 37.01 special charges, 37.02 Security for salvage, 37.23 Lloyd’s Open Form, 37.02 maritime liens, 37.21 , 37.23 Salvage Guarantee Forms, 37.20 – 37.23 Shifting the ships, 11.28 , 22.30 – 22.31 , 25.07 , 25.18 – 25.20 , 26.34 Ships see also Condemnation of ships ; see also Ships, damage to (Rule XVIII 1994) ; see also Ships, valuation of bottom treatment, 25.07 , 25.18 – 25.20 fire on board, 15.01 – 15.18 , 22.43 , 22.64 , 22.71 – 22.73 , 23.37 iron or steel ships, introduction of, 25.02 , 25.11 painting of bottom, 25.18 – 25.20 sailing ships, 16.01 – 16.03 sale, 30.14 , 30.18 , 30.24 shifting the ships, 11.28 , 22.30 – 22.31 , 25.07 , 25.18 – 25.20 , 26.34 ship’s materials, 1.13 , 21.01 – 21.12 Ships, damage to (Rule XVIII), 30.25 adjustment, 30.09 – 30.13 apportionment, 30.13 , 30.25 average adjusters, 30.03 , 30.05 , 30.11 , 30.19 – 30.20 , 30.23 commercial total loss, 30.11 , 30.13 constructive total loss, 30.04 – 30.05 , 30.11 , 30.13 deferred, repairs which can be, 30.19 demolition, ship sold for, 30.14 depreciation, 30.09 , 30.11 , 30.15 , 30.22 – 30.25 drydocking, 30.20 – 30.21 English law, 30.09 estimates, 30.10 , 30.25 evidence, 30.23 Henderson v Shankland principle, 30.15 – 30.17 hull insurance, indemnity under, 30.19 inflation, 30.02 perils of the sea, insured, 30.08 port of refuge, entering a, 30.19 reasonable costs of repair, 30.19 – 30.20 , 30.22 repairs, 30.25 sacrificial damage, 30.19 – 30.20 , 30.22 sale depreciation, 30.24 net proceeds of, 30.18 seaworthiness, 30.20 , 30.22 surveyors, reports of, 30.03 Page 403 time-based charges, 30.21 uniformity, 30.03 , 30.13 wreck, proceeds of, 30.17 Ship’s materials, 1.13 , 21.01 – 21.12 Ships, valuation of, salvage actual net value, 29.21 Association of Average Adjusters, 29.26 – 29.27 average adjusters, 29.21 bunkers, value of, 29.22 charter, ships under long-term, 29.29 contributory value, 29.09 , 29.21 – 29.32 environmental damage, 29.30 – 29.32 estimates, 29.21 excess of apparent value, repairs in, 29.23 – 29.28 extra charges incurred, 29.21 Lloyd’s Open Form, 29.03 market value, 29.23 , 29.25 – 29.26 repairs, 29.21 , 29.23 – 29.28 salvage charter, ships under long-term, 29.29 Lloyd’s Open Form, 29.03 Salvage Convention, effect of award of special compensation under, 29.30 – 29.32 scrap value, 29.26 , 29.28 during voyages, repairs effected, 29.27 Shore labour, overtime of, 11.28 Shortages, 22.15 Singapore conference, 2.36 Slipway dues, 25.19 Smoke damage, 15.09 – 15.10 , 15.15 Spare parts, costs of air-freighting, 11.28 Spars or masts, 16.01 – 16.09 Special accounts, deposits paid into, 34.04 , 34.07 – 34.08 Special compensation for environmental damage, 18.23 , 18.28 , 29.30 – 29.32 Special drawing rights (SDRs), 33.10 , 33.36 – 33.37 Standard forms and clauses see also Lloyd’s Standard Form of Salvage Agreement (LOF) absorption clauses, 38.06 – 38.09 Average Bond, 35.07 – 35.09 , 37.03 – 37.06 , 37.13 Average Disbursements Clause, 32.33 Average Guarantee, copy of, App5 Baltime form, 29.49 BIMCO absorption clauses, 38.06 – 38.07 Centrocon Arbitration Clause, 35.04 , 35.06 , 35.08 Guarantee Form, copy of, App7 International Hull Clauses, 38.07 – 38.09 Lloyd’s Average Bond, 37.03 – 37.08 , App4 Lloyd’s Form of Deposit Receipt, 37.07 , App4 Non-Separation Clause, 12.33 , 12.50 Salvage Guarantee Forms, 37.20 – 37.23 , App7 UK Standard Towage Conditions, 8.22 – 8.24 Stockholm Conference, 2.09 Storage expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.02 , 22.62 – 22.80 fuel and stores, 22.62 – 22.80 warehouse rent, 22.01 , 22.70 Stores see Fuels and stores Stowage see Restowage Stranding see Voluntary stranding (Rule V) Strikes, delay caused by, 23.41 Substituted expenses, 26.06 , 26.29 – 26.33 , 26.40 , 26.49 see also Substituted expenses, principle of (Rule F of1994 Rules) Substituted expenses, principle of (Rule F), 11.01 – 11.52 AAA Rules of Practice, 11.03 – 11.16 ‘any additional expense,’ 11.22 – 11.28 , 11.41 bunkers, consumption of, 11.18 comparison of available options, 11.35 – 11.36 contribution, 11.19 – 11.21 docking/undocking at night time or on holiday, 11.28 drydocking with cargo on board, 11.46 – 11.48 expense place of another, 11.29 reasonable, 11.30 extra, meaning of, 11.13 – 11.14 forwarding cargo to destination, 11.05 – 11.16 , 11.12 , 11.37 – 11.44 interpretation, 11.20 , 11.22 – 11.52 loss, question of substituted, 11.18 – 11.21 Myerson Working Party, 11.13 overtime, 11.28 port, movement of vessel in, 11.28 reasonableness, 11.32 – 11.35 repairs, 11.04 – 11.05 , 11.08 , 11.11 , 11.26 – 11.28 comparison of available options, 11.36 overtime of crew, 11.28 overtime of shore labour, 11.28 port, movement of vessel in, 11.28 riding repairers, employment of, 11.28 towage to destination, 11.49 repatriation of part crew at port of refuge, 11.45 riding repairers, employment of, 11.28 Page 404 Rule of Interpretation, 11.02 Rule Paramount, 11.29 – 11.34 savings to general average, 11.05 – 11.11 , 11.51 – 11.52 spare parts, costs of air-freighting, 11.28 superintendent or agent to expedite repairs, employment of, 11.28 towage from a port of refuge to destination, 11.04 , 11.12 , 11.49 – 11.50 transhipment from point of refuge, 11.05 – 11.06 , 11.12 , 11.37 – 11.44 United States, 11.32 York-Antwerp Rules 1890, 11.07 , 11.38 York-Antwerp Rules 1924, 11.01 , 11.10 York-Antwerp Rules 1950, 11.15 York-Antwerp Rules 1974, 11.11 – 11.12 Successful, whether acts have to be, 6.12 – 6.13 Supercargo, definition of, 23.54 Superintendent or agent to expedite repairs, employment of, 11.28 Supervening events, 24.17 – 24.18 Surveyors Directive to Marking Surveyors, text of, App9 repairs, 25.13 – 25.17 , 30.03 Sydney Conference 1994, 2.29 Comité Maritime International, International Sub-Committee on, 3.19 York-Antwerp Rules, background to, 2.29 Taylor Working Group, 2.22 , 2.26 Temporary repairs see Temporary repairs (Rule XIV) Temporary repairs (Rule XIV), 26.01 – 26.58 abandonment of voyage, 26.54 – 26.55 Association of Average Adjusters, 26.06 , 26.33 , 26.41 , 26.51 – 26.55 average adjusters, 26.06 , 26.33 , 26.41 , 26.47 , 26.58 background, 2.34 Baily Thesis, 26.12 common benefit, 26.27 common safety, 26.20 – 26.22 , 26.27 completion of adventure, enabling the, 26.27 – 26.46 condemnation of ship, 26.13 definition of temporary repairs, 26.03 , 26.47 – 26.49 England, 26.09 , 26.27 , 26.29 – 26.33 extra period of detention, 26.24 hull insurance, where cost is also claimable under, 26.56 – 26.58 moving to second port, 26.34 overheating of engines, 26.24 permanent repairs cannot be effected at port of refuge, where, 26.44 – 26.46 place where adventure ended, 26.13 port of loading or call, 26.25 , 26.33 port of refuge, 26.11 – 26.12 , 26.23 , 26.25 , 26.33 , 26.36 – 26.44 Rule Paramount, 26.49 – 26.55 sacrifice, caused by, 26.10 sacrifice, damage caused by general average, 26.22 – 26.26 savings to general average, 26.06 , 26.08 – 26.09 , 26.43 substituted expense, as, 26.06 , 26.29 – 26.33 , 26.40 , 26.51 United Kingdom, 26.06 , 26.41 , 26.57 United States, 26.27 – 26.28 York-Antwerp Rules 1890, 26.01 York-Antwerp Rules 1924, 26.03 Termination of voyage/adventure amount to be made good for cargo lost or damaged by sacrifice, 28.03 , 28.23 – 28.24 common adventure, 1.17 market value, 28.02 – 28.11 , 28.23 place where adventure ended, 26.13 , 28.02 – 28.11 premature termination, 1.17 prior termination, 28.23 – 28.24 temporary repairs, 26.13 time and place of adjustment, 12.10 , 12.13 – 12.28 Third parties common safety, 14.01 consequences rule, 8.18 – 8.20 contribution, 9.17 – 9.19 lightening, 20.04 voluntary stranding, 17.09 , 17.15 Timber cargoes on deck, 13.04 – 13.07 Time and place of adjustment (Rule G), 12.01 – 12.27 abandonment of voyage, 12.18 – 12.25 community of interest, 12.27 delivery of cargo at port or place named in bill of lading, 12.14 – 12.17 forwarding of cargo to place of destination, 12.27 insurance of disbursements, 12.11 interruption of voyage at port of refuge, 12.27 part cargo left behind at port of refuge, 12.26 port of discharge, 12.05 port of loading, abandonment of voyage at, 12.18 port of refuge Page 405 abandonment of voyage at, 12.18 interruption of voyage at port of refuge, 12.27 part cargo left behind, 12.26 Rule of Interpretation, 12.17 sacrifice distinguished from expenditure, 12.11 – 12.12 termination of adventure, 12.10 , 12.13 – 12.28 transhipment, 12.27 uniformity, 12.02 values, basis of, 12.01 – 12.27 York-Antwerp Rules 1890, 12.01 York Rules 1864, 12.02 Time bar for contributions (Rule XXIII), 35.11 accrual of cause of action, 35.05 arbitration agreements, 35.11 Average Bond, 35.07 – 35.09 bills of lading, 35.05 – 35.06 Centrocon Arbitration Clause, 35.04 , 35.06 , 35.08 charterparties, 35.03 – 35.04 commencement of actions, 35.11 contract, 35.01 guarantees, 35.07 – 35.09 Hague Rules, bills of lading under, 35.05 Hague-Visby Rules, bills of lading under, 35.05 Lloyd’s Average Bond, 35.07 – 35.08 undertakings, 35.07 – 35.09 Time charterparties cargo, ship’s materials and stores used for fuel, 21.12 commission, 32.11 , 32.27 freight, value of, 29.46 – 29.49 funds, provision of, 32.11 , 32.27 Total loss commercial total loss, 12.22 , 30.11 , 30.13 constructive total loss, 22.75 , 30.04 – 30.05 , 30.11 , 30.13 Towage see also Towing or pushing another vessel or vessels (Rule B) consequences rule, 8.21 – 8.24 contract, 8.21 – 8.24 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.23 , 22.28 – 22.29 port charges, 23.45 port of refuge, from, 11.04 , 11.12 , 11.49 – 11.50 substituted expenses, 11.04 , 11.12 , 11.49 – 11.50 UK Standard Towage Conditions, 8.22 – 8.24 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.22 , 23.45 Towing or pushing another vessel or vessels (Rule B), 7.01 – 7.13 apportionment, 7.11 barges under tow, 7.04 – 7.11 Canada, 7.05 – 7.11 cargoes, carriage of, 7.04 Common User Apportionment, 7.11 contracts, incorporation into towage, 7.13 Flotilla Doctrine, 7.07 , 7.09 Norway, 7.12 Rhine Rules, 7.02 – 7.03 salvage, 7.11 uniformity, 7.02 , 7.04 , 7.13 United States, 7.05 – 7.11 Trade samples, 29.15 Transhipment substituted expenses, 11.05 – 11.16 , 11.12 , 11.37 – 11.44 time and place of adjustment, 12.27 UK Standard Towage Conditions, 8.22 – 8.24 Ulrich test, 8.10 , 8.14 , 8.18 , 8.23 UNCTAD (UN Conference on Trade and Development) Rule Paramount, 5.07 , 32.11 Undeclared or wrongfully declared cargo (Rule XIX 1994 Rules), 31.01 – 31.05 bills of lading, jettison without, 31.01 contribution, 31.01 , 31.04 English law, 31.01 fraud, 31.01 jettison without bills of lading, 31.01 knowledge of shipper or agent, goods loaded without, 31.01 misdescriptions, 31.03 – 31.04 Uniformity, 2.01 – 2.20 damage to cargo in discharging etc, 24.16 Glasgow Resolutions, 2.03 – 2.04 incorporation by reference of York-Antwerp Rules, 2.01 National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, letter from, 2.02 – 2.03 quest for uniformity, 2.02 – 2.20 repairs, deductions for, 25.14 salvage, 18.01 ships, damage to, 30.03 , 30.13 time and place of adjustment, 12.02 towage, 7.02 , 7.13 variance of laws and practice in different countries, 1.19 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.72 York & Antwerp Rules 1877, 2.05 York-Antwerp Rules 1890, 2.06 – 2.08 York-Antwerp Rules 1924, 2.07 , 2.09 – 2.11 York-Antwerp Rules 1950, 2.12 – 2.13 York-Antwerp Rules 1974, 2.14 – 2.21 York Rules 1864, 2.04 Page 406 United States anti-trust laws, 34.05 average adjusters, 34.05 , 34.07 Average Disbursements Clause, 32.33 barges under tow, 7.05 Bigham Clause, 12.07 , 12.32 cash deposits, 34.05 , 34.07 contribution, 9.20 – 9.21 contributory value, 29.07 currency, 33.29 delivery at port of refuge, demands for, 12.35 environment, 8.33 funds, provision of, 32.09 , 32.23 interest, 33.03 , 33.26 , 33.29 Jason Clause, 9.21 New Jason Clause, 9.21 Non-Separation Clause, 12.07 , 12.32 , 12.35 peril, prerequisite of, 4.11 – 4.15 repairs, deductions for, 25.22 – 25.24 restowage of shifted cargo, 22.56 Rule of Interpretation, 4.11 – 4.15 Rule Paramount, 5.01 – 5.07 , 11.32 salvage, 18.42 – 18.43 substituted expenses, 11.32 temporary repairs, 26.27 – 26.28 towage, 7.05 – 7.11 unseaworthiness, 9.20 – 9.21 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.18 , 23.41 , 23.55 York-Antwerp Rules 1924, 2.11 Unseaworthiness see Seaworthiness Value, market value see also Contributory value ; see also Contributory value (Rule XVII) ; see also Ships, valuation of amount to be made good for cargo lost or damaged by sacrifice, 28.17 – 28.20 bunkers, 29.22 cargo, 29.34 – 29.40 estimates, 10.13 – 10.14 evidence, 29.01 exceed value goods would have had if remained on board, amount cannot, 28.02 – 28.11 , 28.17 – 28.20 , 28.23 – 28.24 forwarded to destination, assessment of values where cargo, 29.50 – 29.51 freight, 29.34 – 29.36 , 29.40 – 29.49 hypothetical value, 28.19 invoice value, 28.07 – 28.11 , 28.18 , 28.23 – 28.24 jettison, 28.18 – 28.19 market value evidence, 29.01 invoice value, 28.07 – 28.11 , 28.18 , 28.23 – 28.24 place where adventure ended, at, 28.02 – 28.11 prior termination of adventure, 28.23 repairs in excess of apparent value, 29.23 – 29.28 replacement of old parts, increase in value of ship due to, 25.12 salvage, 18.04 time and place of valuation, 12.01 – 12.27 , 29.51 time of discharge, 28.10 , 28.12 variance of laws and practice in different countries, 1.16 Vancouver Conference 2004, 3.01 , 12.06 , 12.08 , 25.08 Variance of laws and practice in different countries, 1.14 – 1.19 inward expenses, 1.14 outward expenses, 1.14 port charges, inwards and outwards, 1.14 – 1.15 termination of common maritime adventure, 1.17 uniformity, need for, 1.19 values, ascertainment of, 1.16 Vessels see Ships Visby, laws of, 1.07 Voluntary stranding (Rule V), 17.01 – 17.16 ‘consequent loss or damage to the property … adventure,’ 17.14 – 17.16 environmental damage and remediation, 17.16 fraud, 17.04 freight, loss of, 17.14 inevitably sink or drive, where ship would, 17.05 – 17.09 ‘intentionally run ashore for the common safety,’ 17.12 – 17.13 jettison, 17.14 third parties, 17.09 , 17.15 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.41 Voyage charterparties, 29.46 – 29.47 Wages and maintenance of crew (Rule XI), 23.01 – 23.86 abandonment of voyage, 23.05 – 23.06 , 23.26 – 23.28 accident, sacrifice or other extraordinary circumstances, entry into port due to, 23.32 , 23.35 accommodation, costs of, 23.53 artificial general average, 23.26 Association of Average Adjusters, 23.07 basic wages, 23.49 Page 407 begin, when detention allowances, 23.37 – 23.38 cabin stewards, definition of, 23.54 calculation, 23.55 , 29.45 , 29.47 – 29.48 cattlemen, exclusion of, 23.54 commission, 32.11 , 32.27 common adventure, 23.01 common safety, 23.10 , 23.11 , 23.25 , 23.35 , 23.75 – 23.77 , 23.84 condemnation of ship, 23.05 – 23.06 , 23.26 – 23.28 , 23.47 crew, definition of, 23.54 crewing ship, costs of, 23.49 date when allowances cease when ship is condemned or voyage abandoned, 23.27 definition of maintenance, 23.52 – 23.53 definition of wages, 23.48 – 23.49 delay for circumstances unconnected with average, 23.41 departure from any port of place, 23.77 – 23.78 detention following entry into port of refuge or return to port of loading, 23.32 deviation, 23.18 , 23.20 – 23.21 discharge of crew following abandonment, 23.06 discharge or loading of cargo, cost of precautionary measures associated with, 23.81 – 23.82 engineers, exclusion of, 23.54 English law, 23.02 , 23.13 , 23.17 , 23.55 entry into port allowable, where expenses of, 23.23 environment, 23.77 – 23.78 port or place, any, 23.77 – 23.78 salvage, 23.77 – 23.78 environmental damage, costs of measures undertaken to prevent or minimise, 23.63 – 23.86 BMLA and AAA report, 23.83 – 23.86 common safety, 23.75 – 23.77 , 23.84 discharge or loading of cargo, cost of precautionary measures associated with, 23.81 – 23.82 entry into or departure from any port of place, 23.77 – 23.78 guarantees, 23.85 oil booms placed around ship as condition of entry, 23.79 P&I Clubs, 23.73 , 23.85 – 23.86 salvage reward, 23.75 – 23.77 uniformity, 23.71 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.22 – 22.24 , 22.28 – 22.29 , 22.45 , 22.55 , 22.59 , 22.66 extension of detention for circumstances unconnected with average, 23.41 extra period of detention, 23.36 , 23.39 – 23.41 fires, extinguishing, 23.37 freight, 23.17 , 29.45 , 29.47 – 29.48 funds, provision of, 32.11 , 32.27 Glasgow Resolutions, 23.02 , 23.13 guarantees, 23.85 ICS (International Chamber of Shipping), 23.15 IUMI’s disapprobation, 23.14 laundry, 23.52 – 23.53 liabilities and expenses, 23.67 Marine Insurance Act 1906, 23.01 Non-Separation Clause, 12.49 oil booms placed around ship as condition of entry, 23.79 original voyage, where ship does not proceed on, 23.46 overtime, 11.28 , 23.49 , 23.64 P&I Clubs, 23.73 , 23.85 – 23.86 peril, in position of, 23.01 port charges, 23.42 – 23.45 port of refuge, 23.01 – 23.86 precautionary measures associated with discharge or loading of cargo, cost of, 23.81 – 23.79 prior damage exclusion, 23.26 – 23.28 , 23.46 prolongation of voyage, 23.20 – 3.23 provisions, 23.52 – 23.53 refuge/returning, 23.16 repairs, 12.49 , 23.17 – 23.18 , 23.26 , 23.34 , 23.39 , 23.43 , 23.53 Rule XI(a), 23.16 – 23.23 Rule XI(b), 23.24 – 23.46 Rule XI(c), 23.47 – 23.59 Rule XI(d), 23.63 – 23.86 salvage common safety, 23.75 – 23.77 delay for providing security, 23.41 environmental damage, 23.75 – 23.77 no cure no pay, 23.75 scientists, exclusion of, 23.54 stay in port, detention as consequence of some event which happens during, 23.33 – 23.36 stranding, voluntary, 23.38 strikes, delay caused by, 23.41 supercargo, definition of, 23.55 surveys, time allowed for, 23.04 Sydney Conference in CMI, 23.66 termination of allowances, 23.39 – 23.41 towage, 23.22 , 23.45 uniformity, 23.71 United Kingdom, 23.55 Page 408 United States, 23.18 , 23.41 , 23.55 Vancouver Conference, 23.14 voluntariness, 23.38 weather conditions, delay caused by, 23.41 York Rules 1864, 23.03 Warehouse rent, 22.01 , 22.70 Wear and tear, 22.12 Weather conditions, avoiding adverse, 22.19 – 22.21 Wireless equipment, 29.15 Wiswall working group, 8.34 Wreck, cutting away (Rule IV), 16.01 – 16.12 amendment, 2.20 , 2.21 consequential damage, 16.12 masts or spars, 16.01 – 16.09 sailing ships, 16.01 – 16.03 York & Antwerp Rules 1877, 2.05 York-Antwerp Rules Guidelines, 36.10 , 36.11 salvage security, 36.13 York-Antwerp Rules 1890, 2.06 – 2.08 amount to be made good for cargo lost or damaged by sacrifice, 28.23 Antwerp Conference, 2.07 consequences rule, 8.15 freight, loss of, 27.04 , 27.14 Liverpool Conference, 2.06 ships, damage to, 30.01 substituted expenses, 11.07 , 11.38 temporary repairs, 26.01 time and place of adjustment, 12.01 uniformity, 2.06 – 2.08 York-Antwerp Rules 1924, 2.09 – 2.11 amount to be made good for cargo lost or damaged by sacrifice, 28.07 , 28.23 Association of Average Adjusters, 2.09 burden of proof, 10.08 cargo, value of, 29.37 common safety, 14.06 consequences rule, 8.03 , 8.19 definition of general average, 6.01 , 6.03 – 6.04 , 6.06 , 6.09 , 6.14 Dowdall draft code, 2.09 freight, loss of, 27.05 – 27.07 funds, provision of, 32.08 general rules, 2.09 – 2.10 incorporation into bills of lading, 2.11 International Law Association, French branch of, 2.09 interpretation, 2.10 lettered rules as general rules, 2.10 Makis agreement, 2.10 numbered rules as particular rules, 2.10 particular rules, precedence of, 2.10 ships, damage to, 30.01 Stockholm Conference, 2.09 substituted expenses, 11.01 , 11.10 temporary repairs, 26.03 uniformity, 2.09 – 2.11 United States, approval in, 2.11 York-Antwerp Rules 1950, 2.12 – 2.13 amendments, 2.12 amount to be made good for cargo lost or damaged by sacrifice, 28.23 Amsterdam Conference 1949, 2.12 – 2.13 cargo, value of, 29.37 Comité Maritime International, 2.12 common safety, 14.06 Rule of Interpretation, 4.06 substituted expenses, 11.52 uniformity, 2.12 – 2.13 York-Antwerp Rules 1974, 2.14 – 2.21 1990 amendment, 2.20 AIDE (Association Internationale de Dispacheurs Européens), 2.15 allowances, calls for curtailment of, 2.14 , 2.20 Comité Maritime International, 2.02 common safety, 14.06 , 14.09 Lloyd’s Open Form 1990, 2.20 Rule IV, revision of, 2.20 Salvage Convention, 2.20 Schadee Commission, 2.15 simplification, 2.14 – 2.15 substituted expenses, 11.11 – 11.12 uniformity, 2.14 – 2.21 York-Antwerp Rules 1994, 37.14 amount to be made good for cargo lost or damaged by sacrifice, 28.01 – 28.24 Bigham Clauses, 12.07 cargo, ship’s materials and stores used for fuel, 21.01 – 21.12 cash deposits, treatment of, 34.01 – 34.11 common safety, loss or damage by sacrifices for the, 14.01 – 14.13 consequences rule, 8.01 – 8.24 contribution, 9.01 – 9.21 contributory value, 20.01 – 29.51 damage to cargo in discharging etc, 24.01 – 24.19 definition of general average, 6.01 – 6.15 expenses at port of refuge etc, 22.01 – 22.80 funds, provision of, 32.01 – 32.24 interest on losses made good in general average, 33.02 – 33.39 jettison of cargo, 13.01 – 13.14 lightening a ship when ashore and consequent damage, expenses incurred, 20.01 – 20.11 Page 409 loss of freight, 27.01 – 27.15 machinery and boilers, damage to, 19.01 – 19.17 Non-Separation Clause, 12.01 , 12.07 , 12.27 – 12.50 repairs, deductions in costs of, 25.01 – 25.24 Rule of Interpretation, 4.01 – 4.16 Rule Paramount, 5.01 – 5.12 salvage, 18.01 – 18.50 ships, damage to, 30.01 – 30.25 substituted expenses, principle of, 11.01 – 11.52 temporary repairs, 26.01 – 26.60 time and place of adjustment, 12.01 – 12.27 towing or pushing another vessel or vessels, 7.01 – 7.13 undeclared or wrongfully declared cargo, 31.01 – 31.05 voluntary stranding, 17.01 – 17.16 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.01 – 23.86 wreck, cutting away (Rule IV 1994 Rules), 16.01 – 16.12 York-Antwerp Rules 2004 absorption clauses, 38.01 – 38.09 salvage, 18.06 security for general average, 37.01 – 37.14 temporary repairs, 26.01 time bar for contributions, 35.01 – 35.11 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.10 – 39.05 York-Antwerp Rules 1994, compared with, App2 York-Antwerp Rules 2016 Introduction, 3.01 – 3.38 alteration, 8.07 CMI Conference, New York, 3.32 – 3.38 domestic legal systems, 7.17 Comparison with York-Antwerp Rules 1994, App1 Henry V, 3.34 IWG, work of, 3.12 – 3.31 York Rules 1864 damage to cargo in discharging etc, 24.05 incorporation, 2.04 time and place of adjustment, 12.02 uniformity, 2.04 wages and maintenance of crew, 23.03 Page 410

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