EU PORT AND SHIPPING SECURITY
In the beginning of the twenty-first century the formation of transport policies at almost every international, peripheral, national and local level focused on the competitiveness and the effectiveness of transport systems and modes. It was only sporadically that security-related initiatives (i.e., measures intending to minimise the possibility of successful unlawful acts against transport means and nodes) were part of the policy agendas. A series of events, foremost the 11 September attacks in New York, fostered an increasing awareness on security issues. Incidents such as the attacks to the Madrid commuter trains (2004) and the London public transport system (2005) increased public unease. Security awareness expanded and policy transport regimes developed, aiming to minimise relevant risks in every transport system and mode and supply-chain operations.
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