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Index

ISM Code: A practical Guide to the Legal and Insurance Implications

Index Index ABS see American Bureau of Shipping accident pyramid 313 – 14 accidents: and human error 5 – 7 , 150 ; erecting barriers 339 – 44 ; investigation and reporting 32 , 119 , 309 – 22 ; reasons of 6 – 8 ; requirements on the Company 311 – 17 ; requirements on the flag Administration 317 – 22 ; root cause analysis 316 , 342 ; statistics 19 – 22 ; watchkeeping-related 268 ; see also incidents; hazardous occurrences; near-misses active failures 341 – 2 , 344 actual fault or privity 132 – 4 , 136 – 8 , 263 , 280 , 281 , 294 – 5 ; see also privity Administrations see flag Administrations Advisory Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (ACSNI) 60 ‘agony of the moment’ 139 alcohol abuse 243 – 4 , 248 Allianz 19 – 20 allisions 268 alter ego 134 – 5 , 138 , 300 American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) 100 – 3 appraisals 257 – 8 arbitration 110 attribution 131 , 135 auditable systems 45 – 7 audits: DOC verification 164 – 7 , 179 – 82 ; external 47 , 145 ; IMO scheme 73 ; internal 32 – 3 , 47 , 142 , 143 , 145 , 306 – 9 ; SMC verification 173 , 174 audit trail 308 – 9 Bahamian Merchant Shipping Act 1976 100 ballasting operations 286 Baltic and International Maritime Council (BIMCO) 2 , 55 , 56 , 106 , 295 ; ISM Clause 99 , 296 bareboat charterers 51 , 105 , 162 , 349 , 354 , 371 bills of lading 277 , 279 , 289 BIMCO see Baltic and International Maritime Council blind-eye knowledge 135 – 7 Bourbon Dolphin 267 breakdown policy 298 bridge management 268 – 76 Bridge Procedures Guide 204 , 205 , 206 Bridge Team Management – A practical guide 204 bulk carriers 10 , 24 , 42 , 149 , 15 burden of proof 134 , 280 , 281 , 294 cargo 39 , 51 – 2 ; loss or damage to 278 , 283 cargo ships 10 , 23 , 42 , 164 , 165 cargo underwriters 111 , 149 carriage of goods 110 , 268 , 276 – 93 ; due diligence 278 Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1936 (US) 279 Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971 (UK) 279 Carver Report 6 casualties 6 casualty investigations 317 – 20 Certificate of Competency (COC) 107 , 218 , 224 , 225 , 229 , 238 – 9 , 273 – 4 ; fraudulent 240 certificates: medical 242 – 3 ; registers of 241 certification 162 – 87 , 237 – 40 ; flag Administrations 34 , 76 – 7 ; fraudulent 240 – 2 ; interim 34 , 177 – 86 ; MLC 237 ; Port State Control 155 – 6 ; Recognised Organisations 86 – 7 , 90 – 3 ; Safety Management System 33 – 4 , 80 ; SOLAS 161 – 2 , 237 ; STCW 239 , 241 – 2 ; STCW Code 237 charterers 146 – 9 charter hire 147 charterparties 99 , 278 , 279 , 295 – 6 charts 111 , 261 , 282 , 305 , 315 chemical tankers 10 , 24 , 149 , 165 CICs see concentrated inspection campaigns civil actions 275 Class Certificates 158 Classification Societies 93 – 105 Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act 2004 42 COC see Certificate of Competency Code of Good Management Practice in Safe Ship Operations 4 , 5 , 116 Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen (COSWP) 189 , 191 , 203 collisions 268 , 275 ; and human error 6 COLREG see Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 commercial management 106 Companies 105 – 20 ; accident prevention 311 – 17 ; ‘alter ego’ of 134 – 5 ; auditable systems 45 – 7 ; commitment to safety 39 ; Company Security Officers (CSOs) 129 ; compliance with the ISM Code 40 – 1 , 44 – 5 ; culture 59 , 64 , 208 – 9 ; defined 51 , 105 ; DOCs 162 – 71 ; DPAs 123 , 125 , 129 – 30 , 206 – 7 ; Drug and Alcohol Policy 243 ; emergency preparedness 31 , 296 – 8 ; external audits 47 ; implementation of corrective action 32 ; internal safety audits 32 – 3 , 47 , 142 , 143 , 145 , 306 – 9 ; maintenance of the ship and equipment 31 – 2 ; obligations and responsibilities 51 , 105 – 6 , 114 – 19 , 118 , 219 – 24 , 229 , 253 ; one-ship 50 – 1 ; plans for shipboard operations 30 – 1 ; requirements placed upon 113 , 311 – 17 ; role as enforcer 145 – 6 ; Safety and Environmental-Protection Policy 113 , 141 ; safety culture 63 – 6 , 339 ; safety management objectives 41 , 215 , 265 ; Safety Management Systems 48 – 50 , 113 , 117 – 19 , 193 , 207 ; support for Masters 236 – 7 ; threefold mantra 44 – 5 ; verification, review and evaluation 33 , 35 – 6 , 306 – 9 Company Security Officers (CSOs) 120 compliance culture 50 , 145 – 6 concentrated inspection campaigns (CICs) 22 – 4 condition surveys 150 confidentiality 320 container ships 24 contract of carriage 52 , 96 , 275 , 279 , 295 contractual disputes 275 Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims 1976 (LLMC) 133 , 139 , 281 Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 (COLREG) 72 , 214 , 271 Cosco Busan 12 Costa Concordia 345 COSWP see Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen crew: liability for actions of 112 ; management 106 – 7 ; responsibilities 223 ; see also Designated Persons (DPs); Masters; resources and personnel criminal prosecutions 275 critical systems 301 CSC see International Convention for Safe Containers 1972 CSOs see Company Security Officers culture 57 – 66 ; company 59 , 64 , 208 – 9 ; compliance 58 – 9 ; definition 57 – 8 ; flexible 63 ; informed 61 ; just 62 – 3 ; learning 63 ; negative 58 ; ‘no-blame’ 62 ; of self-regulation of safety 116 ; positive 58 , 59 ; reporting 62 ; safety 39 , 58 – 66 , 116 , 142 , 144 – 5 , 208 Deepwater Horizon 13 default 132 , 133 , 280 – 1 , 293 ; wilful 112 defences-in-depth 340 – 1 deficiencies: detainable 155 ; identifying and taking action 150 , 154 – 5 , 157 demise charters 146 Designated Person Ashore (DPA) 36 , 122 , 115 ; see also Designated Persons (DPs) Designated Persons (DPs) 121 – 39 ; as ‘alter ego’ of Company 134 – 5 ; experience 118 – 19 , 125 , 127 , 129 , 130 ; qualifications 118 – 19 , 125 – 6 , 130 ; resources and support for 116 , 123 , 125 , 131 ; role and duties 119 , 121 – 2 , 125 ; training 118 – 19 , 125 , 128 , 130 detention rates 22 – 4 DOCs see Documents of Compliance Documents of Compliance (DOCs) 50 – 1 , 161 – 71 ; and PSCOs 155 – 6 ; and SMSs 180 – 1 ; Company requirements and records 129 – 30 , 206 – 7 ; forms of certificate 187 ; interim 178 – 82 , 187 ; interim verification 179 – 82 ; issuing 59 , 76 , 90 , 112 , 163 ; on-board copies 171 ; requirements 81 ; safety and pollution-prevention 131 – 2 ; safety management audits 165 – 7 ; validity 164 – 5 ; withdrawal 55 , 112 , 167 – 9 domestic voyages 42 Dona Paz 344 – 5 DPA see Designated Person Ashore drug abuse 243 – 4 , 248 Drug and Alcohol Policy 243 due diligence: and duty of care 291 ; and liability 133 ; and seaworthiness 280 , 281 , 282 , 288 – 91 , 293 , 300 ; and carriage of goods 278 ; in appointment of staff 274 ; obligation to exercise 283 , 289 electro-technical officers 262 emergency equipment 301 emergency preparedness 31 , 296 – 8 employment, continuity of 50 , 53 – 4 , 209 , 273 EMSA see European Maritime Safety Agency engineering officers 262 environment, protection of 52 – 3 , 139 – 44 ; see also marine pollution; pollution prevention; Safety and Environmental Protection Policy equipment 298 – 304 Erika 103 – 4 , 147 Estonia 10 Eurasian Dream 13 , 235 – 6 , 267 – 8 European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) 3 , 81 evaluation, Company 33 , 35 – 6 , 306 – 9 experience 26 , 256 ; DOCs 118 – 19 , 125 , 127 , 129 , 130 explosions 6 familiarisation 252 – 4 fatigue 247 – 52 fault see actual fault or privity feedback 236 , 302 , 303 ferries: Ro-Ro passenger 5 , 9 , 10 , 222 ; safety management 5 , 9 , 10 fire 6 , 113 , 281 fire-fighting 91 , 150 , 178 , 266 , 277 fitness for duty 248 flag Administrations 76 – 85 ; accident prevention 317 – 22 ; certification and verification 34 , 76 , 80 ; compliance with the requirements of the Code 15 , 49 ; definition 76 ; detention rates 22 – 4 ; DOCs 163 – 4 , 168 , 181 ; external audits 47 ; Guidelines for 14 – 15 , 26 , 80 , 113 , 116 ; major shipping flags 77 ; role as enforcer 146 ; Safety Management Certificates 34 , 171 – 4 , 184 – 5 ; Safety Management Systems 197 – 9 ; see also Recognised Organisations (ROs) flags of convenience (FOCs) 7 , 77 , 80 flexible culture 63 FOCs see flags of convenience fraudulent certificates 240 – 2 freight 147 gas carriers 10 , 23 , 42 , 165 GIE see Group of Independent Experts GMDSS radio operators 261 good faith 101 , 138 goods: definition 289 ; liability for loss or damage 133 , 139 government-operated ships 42 Grainville 4 gross negligence 112 groundings 268 , 275 ; and human error 6 Group of Independent Experts (GIE) 17 , 25 , 26 , 56 , 117 , 124 Guidelines on the Application of the IMO International Safety Management (ISM) Code 116 , 194 , 299 H&M insurance 6 , 7 , 149 , 150 Hague Rules 279 , 292 Hague–Visby Rules 226 , 274 , 277 – 83 , 289 Hamburg Rules 278 , 279 hazardous occurrences 32 , 119 , 144 , 311 – 13 hazards 28 , 29 , 188 – 9 Health and Safety Executive (HSE) 43 , 64 health and safety protection 191 Herald of Free Enterprise 3 – 5 , 8 , 121 , 344 , 345 high-speed craft 10 , 42 , 164 hours of rest 247 – 52 hours of work 247 – 52 Human Element in Shipping Casualties, The 6 human error: and accidents/incidents 5 – 8 , 150 ; and casualties 6 ; and collisions 6 ; and fires/explosions 6 ; and groundings 6 ; Swiss cheese model 61 , 340 – 1 , 343 IACS see International Association of Classification Societies ICS see International Chamber of Shipping ILO see International Labour Organization ILS see International Labour Standards IMDG Code 277 IMO see International Maritime Organization imprisonment 199 IMSBC Code 277 incidents: and human error 6 ; serious 21 ; statistics 21 incompetency 227 – 8 inefficiency 227 , 228 informed culture 61 inspections: by insurers 150 ; by Port State Control 22 , 80 – 4 , 151 , 153 – 5 , 170 ; pre-vetting 149 ; reports of 154 ; campaigns (CICs) Instructions for the Guidance of Surveyors 180 , 194 insurers 149 – 51 INTERCARGO see International Association of Dry Cargo Shipowners Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) 70 interim certification 34 , 177 – 86 ; DOCs 178 – 82 , 187 ; SMCs 184 – 5 , 187 , 232 INTERMANAGER see International Association of Shipmanagers International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) 2 ; Guidelines for Auditors 15 , 28 , 30 , 32 , 114 – 15 , 127 – 8 , 200 , 224 , 231 , 254 ; Guide to Risk Assessment in Ship Operations 29 , 187 , 189 ; Procedures and Guidelines 87 – 9 International Association of Dry Cargo Shipowners (INTERCARGO) 2 , 56 International Association of Independent Tank Owners (INTERTANKO) 2 , 56 International Association of Shipmanagers (INTERMANAGER) 2 International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) 2 , 4 , 56 , 116 International Convention for Safe Containers (CSC) 1972 277 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 73 /78 (MARPOL) 2 , 85 , 151 – 2 , 318 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea 1974 (SOLAS) 2 , 9 , 41 – 2 , 85 , 151 , 260 , 318 – 19 International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers 1978 (STCW) 2 , 214 ; amendments 25 , 216 – 18 , 248 – 50 ; PSC inspections 151 ; resources and personnel 216 – 24 , 253 , 260 – 2 International Labour Organization (ILO) 25 , 56 , 73 – 5 ; conventions 197 – 8 ; Member States 76 ; structure 74 International Labour Standards (ILS) 25 , 74 International Maritime Organization (IMO) 70 – 3 ; audit scheme 73 ; Conventions and Protocols 71 – 2 , 197 – 8 ; development of ISM Code 8 – 15 ; Facilitation Committee 71 ; ‘Go to Sea!’ campaign 53 – 4 ; historical reasons 3 – 8 ; Legal Committee 71 ; Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) 71 ; Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) 5 , 71 ; Member States 76 ; Recognised Organisations 85 – 6 ; safety culture 64 – 5 ; sub-committees 71 ; Technical Co-operation Committee 71 International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals (ISGOTT) 204 International Safety Management Code (ISM Code): amendments to 11 , 15 , 25 – 37 , 124 ; application 41 – 3 ; background 1 – 37 ; compliance requirements 40 – 1 , 44 , 49 – 50 , 162 – 347 ; developments at IMO 8 – 15 ; effectiveness of implementation 1 5 – 24 ; enforcers 145 – 58 ; facilitators 69 – 75 ; Guidance on the Qualifications, Training and Experience 26 ; Guidelines for Administration 14 – 15 , 26 , 80 , 113 , 116 ; Guidelines for the Operational Implementation 26 ; key players 69 – 159 ; legislators/regulators 75 – 105 ; mandatory compliance with 9 – 10 ; non-compliance with 12 , 41 , 151 ; personalised system 40 ; preamble to 37 – 40 , 49 , 52 , 120 – 1 , 140 ; purpose and key objectives 37 – 41 , 214 ; research into implementation 16 – 19 ; underlying principles 37 – 66 International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code) 2 International Shipping Federation (ISF) 2 , 4 , 55 , 56 , 65 , 116 international standard 37 – 9 International Transport Workers Federation 56 International Union of Marine Insurance (IUMI) 19 – 21 international voyage 42 INTERTANKO see International Association of Independent Tank Owners ISF see International Shipping Federation ISGOTT see International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals ISM Code see International Safety Management Code ISM consultants 52 , 59 ISPS Code see International Ship and Port Facility Security Code IUMI see International Union of Marine Insurance job descriptions 115 just culture 62 – 3 KISS principle 194 , 271 knowledge 227 – 8 ; blind-eye 135 – 7 ; of unseaworthiness/incompetence issues 136 – 9 ; privity 136 – 8 language 107 , 258 – 63 ; common 259 latent conditions 341 – 4 leadership 39 , 52 learning culture 63 liability: Classification Societies acting as ROs 93 – 105 ; development of 12 ; fire 133 ; limits of 139 ; loss or damage of goods 133 , 139 , 280 ; of ship managers 111 – 12 ; of shipowners 132 – 4 ; unseaworthiness/incompetence issues 136 – 8 Liberia 77 Limitation Convention 1957 133 , 139 , 281 live animals 289 LLMC see Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims 1976 Loadline Certificates 97 loss or damage 110 : and fire 133 ; and unseaworthiness 280 ; exemptions from liability 280 ; to cargos 278 , 283 MAIB see Marine Accident Investigation Branch maintenance: adequate system 302 – 4 ; cost cutting 8 ; non-conformities within 302 – 4 ; of the ship and equipment 31 – 2 , 298 – 304 ; planned maintenance policy 299 major non-conformities (MNCs) 22 , 27 – 8 , 36 , 45 , 47 , 55 , 157 – 8 , 168 – 70 , 174 – 5 , 190 management: commitment to safety 39 , 52 – 3 , 56 , 66 ; of safety systems 293 – 5 ; reviews 119 ; systems 43 – 8 ; systems approach to 43 Managing the Risks of Organisational Accidents 61 manning: and seaworthiness 287 ; requirements 35 , 54 , 236 ; safe 244 – 7 manning agents 109 , 209 ; commitment to safety 39 ; monitoring 116 Marchioness disaster 188 Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB) 321 , 322 Marine and Coastguard Agency (MCA) 321 – 2 Marine Guidance Notes (MGNs) 202 Marine Insurance Act 1906 136 , 137 , 278 marine pollution 70 – 1 Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) 42 , 180 , 194 maritime labour certificate 75 , 213 Maritime Labour Convention 2006 (MLC) 2 , 25 , 41 , 74 , 191 ; preamble to 214 ; resources and personnel 210 – 16 ; working standards for seafarers 211 – 12 MARPOL see International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 73 /78 Masters: and Safety Management Systems 29 – 30 , 119 , 141 – 4 , 229 – 36 , 186 ; and SMS manuals 54 ; commitment to safety 39 ; continuity of employment 50 , 209 , 273 ; hours of work/rest 251 – 2 ; qualifications 224 – 9 ; requirements 107 ; responsibility and authority 30 , 141 – 4 , 223 ; safety and environment protection 139 – 44 ; standing orders 144 , 270 ; support for 236 – 7 ; verification 36 MCA see Maritime and Coastguard Agency medical certificates 107 , 242 – 3 medical examination 242 – 3 mental health 287 Merchant Shipping Act 1906 136 Merchant Shipping and Fishing Vessels (Health and Safety at Work) Regulations 1997 191 Merchant Shipping (ISM Code) Regulations 1998 5 , 199 Merchant Shipping (ISM Code) (Ro-Ro Passenger Ferries) Regulations 1997 5 Merchant Shipping (Operations Book) Regulations 1988 5 , 9 , 121 , 122 MGNs see Marine Guidance Notes Minimum Safe Manning Document 246 MLC see Maritime Labour Convention 2006 MNCs see major non-conformities mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) 10 , 42 , 165 moral dilemmas 344 – 5 multi-national crew 259 , 260 Muncaster Castle 290 , 291 Nancy 12 Nautical Institute 204 navigation 268 – 76 NCN see Non Conformity Note near-misses 312 – 13 ; reporting 26 , 118 , 144 negative culture 58 negligence 112 , 136 , 228 Nicholas H 93 – 100 NKK 94 , 96 NLS tankers 24 no-blame culture 62 non-conformities 11 , 22 , 45 – 7 , 119 , 302 ; major (MNCs) 22 , 27 – 8 , 36 , 45 , 47 , 55 , 157 – 8 , 168 – 70 , 174 – 5 , 190 ; reporting and analysis 32 , 131 , 144 , 310 , 311 – 13 Non Conformity Note (NCN) 157 non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 56 observations 45 , 119 , 131 , 313 OCIMF see Oil Companies International Marine Forum Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF) 2 , 148 oil-majors 148 , 149 oil tankers 10 , 24 , 42 , 149 , 165 ; pollution from 70 one-ship companies 50 – 1 open registers (ORs) 7 , 77 , 80 operational risks 189 – 91 ; see also risks ORs see open registers overriding conditions 249 package limitation 281 Panama 77 Passenger Safety Certificates 97 passenger ships 10 , 42 , 122 , 164 Patraikos II 274 personal act or omission 133 – 4 , 139 P&I Clubs 6 ; accident and loss prevention guides 204 ; as enforcers 149 – 51 ; inspections and condition surveys 150 ; medical assessments 243 P&I insurance 6 , 7 , 150 pollution prevention 32 – 3 , 52 , 121 , 131 – 2 ; see also marine pollution Port State Control (PSC) 2 ; and compliance with the ISM Code 18 ; as enforcer 151 – 8 ; certification and implementation 155 – 6 ; guidelines for 153 – 8 ; inspections 22 , 80 – 4 , 151 , 153 – 5 , 170 ; regional organisations 152 ; standardisation of procedures 152 – 3 Port State Control Officers (PSCOs) 154 – 8 positive culture 58 Principles of Minimum Safe Manning 35 privity, concept of 136 ; see also actual fault or privity property 27 property damage 38 – 9 Protection/Protecting and Indemnity Association (P&I Clubs) 2 , 21 PSC see Port State Control PSCOs see Port State Control Officers qualifications 26 , 256 Quality Management Systems 38 , 193 Rabaul Queen 345 Reason, James 59 , 61 , 63 , 339 – 40 recklessness 112 , 139 , 281 , 300 Recognised Organisations (ROs) 85 – 105 ; accountability of 158 ; assignment of authority to 85 – 6 ; certification 86 – 7 , 90 – 3 ; definition 85 ; external audits 47 ; IACS Procedures and Guidelines 87 – 9 ; legal status 90 – 105 ; MARPOL 85 ; minimum specifications for 86 ; performance tables 87 – 9 ; responsibility of 84 ; SOLAS 85 ; verifying compliance 49 repairs 91 – 2 , 94 , 108 , 246 , 302 reporting: accidents 32 ; hazardous occurrences 32 , 144 ; near-misses 26 , 118 , 144 ; non-conformities 32 , 144 reporting culture 62 resources and personnel: adequate understanding 254 – 5 ; cost cutting 8 ; drug and alcohol abuse 243 – 4 , 248 ; employment and social rights 215 ; familiarisation 252 – 4 ; hours of work/rest 247 – 52 ; language 258 – 63 ; medical examinations 242 – 3 ; MLC 210 – 16 ; multi-national crew 259 , 260 ; recruitment and placement 229 ; safe manning requirements 35 , 54 , 236 ; Safety Management Systems 208 – 64 ; SOLAS 260 ; STCW 1978 216 – 24 , 253 , 260 – 2 ; training 216 , 219 , 255 – 8 ; working standards 211 – 12 reward schemes 145 RINA 103 – 4 risk assessment 27 – 9 , 187 – 92 , 232 – 3 , 247 ; tankers 148 risk-based approach 28 risk management 27 , 29 , 41 , 187 – 92 risks 28 – 9 , 188 – 9 ; operational 189 – 91 Ro-Ro passenger ferries 5 , 9 , 10 , 222 ROs see Recognised Organisations Rotterdam Rules 278 , 279 safe practices 40 – 1 Safety and Environmental Protection Policy 52 – 3 , 113 , 141 , 230 Safety Aspects of Ship Design and Technology 6 safety culture 39 , 58 – 66 , 116 , 142 , 144 – 5 , 208 safety equipment 301 Safety Management Certificate (SMC) 51 , 171 – 7 ; and DOCs 180 – 1 ; and Masters 186 ; and PSCOs 155 – 6 ; forms of certificate 187 ; interim 184 – 5 , 187 , 232 ; issuing 59 , 76 , 90 , 161 , 171 ; requirements 81 ; validity 172 ; verification 33 – 4 , 172 – 7 ; withdrawal 55 , 173 – 4 Safety Management Manuals 49 – 50 , 54 , 192 ; document control of 304 – 5 ; ready-made 50 , 59 ; reviewing 180 Safety Management Systems (SMSs) 3 , 192 – 309 ; and competency of staff 54 – 6 ; and interim DOCs 178 – 9 ; and Masters 141 – 4 , 229 – 36 ; and safety culture 65 , 142 ; auditable systems 45 – 7 ; auditing and monitoring 47 ; buy-in by Company personnel 56 – 7 , 66 ; certification and periodical verification 33 – 4 , 162 – 87 ; commitment from the top 52 – 4 , 121 ; compliance with the ISM code 18 , 22 – 3 , 49 – 50 ; deficiencies in 157 ; documented system 194 ; evaluation 33 ; guidelines 117 – 20 , 201 – 3 ; inspections of 156 ; instructions and procedures 197 ; national requirements 199 – 201 ; objectives 194 – 6 ; Plan, Do, Check, Act model 43 , 192 , 326 – 39 ; ready-made 50 , 193 ; requirements 47 – 8 , 194 , 196 – 7 , 199 – 201 , 207 – 8 ; review of 29 – 30 , 119 – 20 ; risk assessment 29 , 190 ; safety and anti-pollution activities 32 ; structure of 192 – 208 ; tailor-made 48 – 50 salvage 111 , 275 San Francisco Bay 12 Scandinavian Star 9 , 259 SDRs see Special Drawing Rights seafarers: buy-in into SMS 56 – 7 ; competency of 54 – 6 ; definition 21 , 252 ; labour standards 74 – 5 ; nationality of 7 – 8 ; requirements 35 , 54 ; training 8 ; worldwide supply of 55 ; see also crew; resources and personnel Seafarers International Research Centre (SIRC) 241 seaworthiness 13 , 226 ; and due diligence 280 , 281 , 282 , 288 – 91 , 293 , 300 ; and loss or damage 280 ; and Masters 228 ; and stowage of cargo 287 – 9 ; knowledge of 137 – 9 ; manning aspect 287 ; under contracts of carriage 278 – 9 , 285 – 7 ; warranty of 132 – 3 ; within Hague–Visby Rules 283 self-assessment 148 self-enforcement 145 self-incrimination 310 , 320 self-monitoring 145 self-regulation 38 , 40 , 59 , 116 , 142 , 145 ; of safety 116 serious incidents 21 ship management agreements 106 ship managers 105 – 9 ; and shipowners 106 – 113 ; liabilities for the actions of the crew 112 ; liabilities to owners 111 – 12 ; obligations 109 ; ship operators 105 – 45 shipboard operations 30 – 1 , 264 – 96 ; and risk assessment 265 ; functional requirements 264 ; key 265 – 6 , 276 , 292 ; plans and instructions for 292 – 3 shipping companies see Companies Shipman ’98 106 – 11 shipowners 105 – 7 ; and ship managers 106 – 113 ; liability of 132 – 4 ; obligations 109 Ship Security Officers (SSOs) 129 shore management 120 – 2 short-sea trade 122 SIRC see Seafarers International Research Centre SIRE Programme 148 skill 227 SMC see Safety Management Certificate SMS documentation 304 – 5 SMS Procedure Manuals 149 ; see also Safety Management Manuals SMSs see Safety Management Systems SOLAS see International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea 1974 sovereign immunity 84 , 90 , 93 Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) 281 SSOs see Ship Security Officers standing orders 144 , 270 Star Sea 137 , 139 Statutory Certificates 84 , 90 – 3 , 158 ; see also Documents of Compliance (DOCs); statutory investigations 275 STCW see International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers 1978 STCW Code 218 – 23 , 237 – 8 , 250 – 1 , 271 stowage 287 – 8 strandings 268 Sundancer 100 – 1 Surveyor General’s Organisation 6 surveys 2 , 53 , 85 , 86 , 90 – 1 , 150 Swiss cheese model 57 , 61 , 340 – 1 , 343 tacit acceptance 9 Tanker Management Self-Assessment (TMSA) 2 tanker risk assessment 148 technical management 106 , 108 – 9 THETIS database 81 threefold mantra 44 – 5 , 322 , 326 TMSA see Tanker Management Self-Assessment TMSA Programme 148 – 9 Torrey Canyon 71 training 26 , 118 – 19 , 125 , 128 , 130 , 216 , 219 , 255 – 8 transparency 50 – 2 understanding 254 – 5 United Kingdom Mutual Steamship Assurance Association (Bermuda) Limited 6 United Nations: maritime-related agencies 70 ; see also International Labour Organization (ILO); International Maritime Organization (IMO) United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 69 , 318 United States 199 – 200 VDR see Voyage Data Recorder Vector 344 verification 162 – 87 ; Company 33 , 35 – 6 , 118 – 19 , 306 – 9 ; flag Administrations 76 – 7 ; interim DOCs 179 – 82 ; Masters 36 ; Safety Management Certificates 33 – 4 , 172 – 7 ; Safety Management System 33 – 4 , 80 Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) 275 Viking Islay 12 voyage: domestic 42 ; international 42 ; planning 204 , 205 Voyage Data Recorder (VDR) 275 VTS see Vessel Traffic Service watchkeeping 268 – 76 watchkeeping-related accidents 268 White–Grey–Black Lists 15 , 80 , 82 – 4 , 162 wilful default 112 witness protection 320

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