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Index

Law of Wreck, The

Page 801 Index Index abandoned ships 559–66 derelict, and 398–400 ; IMO conventions 312; MSC Napoli 15–16 ; State practical problems 668–9 ; WRC 2007 liability 464–5 abandonment: derelict 222–4 ; dumping, or 667–9 ; financial security 74; notice of 12, 171, 187, 190–193 , 195–6 , 224, 231–234 , 236, 238, 525; ownership, of 224–31 ; rights, of 222–31 ; total loss 190–2 Accident Reporting Regulations 2012 266–7 adventurae maris 211–2 , 247, 268–9 acquisition: law of the flag 214; ownership of wreck 220–2 , 703–5 ; UCH 2001 326 actual total loss 188–90 ; bareboat charterer 60–1 ; constructive total loss 190–19 ; insurers’ rights 231–4 , 236–9 ; ship registry 706; underwriters’ decision time 195–6 Aegean Sea 12, 61, 100, 102, 104, 105, 137 Affected States: determining hazards 423–4 ; locating wreck 424–5 ; marking wreck 425–7 ; powers and obligations 422–35 ; wreck removal 427–35 aircraft 212, 228, 281, 282, 285, 286, 290, 291, 292, 322, 323, 338, 339, 346, 347, 348, 351, 403, 452, 484, 658, 665, 696–7 , 700 alternative dispute resolution 619–25 Amoco Cadiz 11, 13, 63, 135, 137, 319, 411 Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 285–6 apportionment: collision liability 94–5 ; GA security 172; sub-apportionment of liability 111; Wreckhire contract 618 Assi Eurolink 121, 123, 126–8 , 428, 492, 531 Athens Convention 1974 78; passenger claims 85; UK domestic carriage 89 Athens Convention 2002 78–80 : compensation and limits of liability 83–5 ; compulsory insurance 86–9 ; domestic carriage 89; liability for death and injury 80–3 ; passenger claims 89–90 ; passengers’ luggage 85–6 ; terrorism 459–60 ; UK domestic carriage 89; WRC 2007 385, 492, 535–8 Baltic Ace 27–8 , 104, 119–21 , 123, 128, 140, 446, 513, 531, 595, 604, 657, 670 barratry 47, 177, 458, 500, 550 Bargehire 2008 607, 711 Basel Convention 1989: Conference of the Parties 668, 671–2 ; EU Ship Recycling Regulation 2013 678–9 ; EU Waste Shipment Regulation 2006 673–6 ; ship recycling 676–8 ; wreck disposal 669–72 BIMCO 607–54 ; Barecon 2017 58–61 ; Barecon 89 59–60 ; disposal voyage contracts 708–12 ; QRA 606; Recyclecon 2012 682, 704–5 ; subcontracts 572–3 ; Towcon 2008 607; Towhire 2008 607; Wreckfixed 2010 633–9 ; Wreckhire 2010 610–33 ; Wreckstage 2010 639–54 Bonn Agreement: Christos Bitas 657; OPRC 1990 323; WRC 2007 387 Brussels I Regulation Recast 55, 56, 89, 90, 118, 120, 124, 203, 204: Art 9 125; Art 45(1)(a) 125, 127; EU jurisdiction 127; Uno case 126 Bunkers Convention 2001 141–4 ; EEZ 409–10 ; Environmental Liability Directive 2004 150–1 ; hazard definition 404; HNSC 2010 147; LLMC pollution claims 101, 626; multi-state limitation proceedings 117–19 ; national law 549–50 ; pollution damage liability 59, 432, 505; Rena legal claims 21–2 ; salvage 583; ship registry 415; state parties 381, 668; time charterers 63–9 ; voyage charterers 61; WRC 2007 369, 371–6 , 385–7 ; 490, 492, 496, 502, 507, 520–1 ; wreck pollution 14–15 carcasses 396, 600, 601, 662, 663, 685, 693, 700 cargo claims 36,-37; 44–56 ; LLMC, and 99 cargo forwarding costs 39–43 ; insurance, and 184–188 ; see also carriage contracts cargo owners/interests: carriage contracts, and 11, 36, 43, 44–56 ; collision 94–95 ; directions to 258; insurance and GA 169, 174, 179–188 , 189, 194; liability for wreck 56–7 , 137; limitation 103, 108, 137, 710; removal by Page 802 interests 38, 206; practical difficulties after wreck 36; salvage or removal operations 37–9 , 108, 166, 182, 194, 255, 271, 574, 580; state immunity 163; waste 685, 702; wreck and 206 528, 612; see also dangerous goods cargo problems 30–4 ; changing environmental focus 30; see also container problems, dangerous goods cargo removal 96: under CLC 140, 518; under WRC 2007 140, 394, 440, 481–490 , 530, 532, 547, 552; HNSC 520; limitation, and 100, 102–105 , 106, 107, 108, 111, 114–116 , 129, 151, 440, 490, 493, 521, 554; lost at sea 396; salvage, and 165, 167, 580, 650; UK and WRC 2007 547, 552, 554; waste, and 690, 691, 696, 699; wreck removal contracts, and 650 carriage claims: forum issues 55 carriage contracts 39–43 ; termination 41–3 ; transhipment costs 40 CEFAS: SCU pollution response 265 charterers 58–69 ; bareboat 58–60 ; directions, and 256–7 ; influence on wreck removal 69; limitation 105–106 , 109; time 63–9 ; voyage 61–3 Chitra 440, 443, 445, 474, 658, 661, 670 Christos Bitas 261, 657; see also Bonn Agreement Cita 14 claims subject to limitation: charterers and limitation 105; pollution 100–1 ; property and personal 99; wreck and cargo removal 102–4 CLC 1969: Amoco Cadiz 11–12 ; hazard definition 363–5 ; IMCO salvage, disasters 132–4 ; pollution claims 100; war and terrorism 457–8 ; WRC 2007 371, 499–501 CLC 1992 133–7 ; Aegean Sea 12; Amoco Cadiz 11; bareboat charterer 59; Bunkers Convention 2001 141–17 , 157; EEZ 381–3 , 431; Environmental Liability Directive 2004 150–1 ; Erika 12–13 ; Fund Convention regime, and 132–40 ; hazard definition 404, 423–4 ; HNSC 2010 130; insurer’s liability cap 507–8 ; LC Protocol 1996 663; multi-state limitation proceedings 117–19 ; national law 549–51 ; pollution claims 100–3 ; pollution risks 626–7 ; salvage payment 258; SCOPIC 593–4 ; ship’s registry 415–16 ; time charterer 64; voyage charterer 61; WRC 2007 375, 385–7 , 399, 409, 411, 432–5 , 490–502 , 511–19 CLCS 303–6 CMI: cargo removal 483–7 , 489–90 ; derelict and abandoned ships 398–406 ; Montreal Compromise 165; national legislation review 433–5 , 523–4 ; Patrick Griggs 533–4 ; shipowner responsibility to report 418–19 ; Torrey Canyon 9, 131–2 ; voluntary salvor 430; WRC 2007 development 361–9 , 387; WRC 2007 territorial sea application 411–14 coal 30, 54, 103, 147, 242, 295, 446, 447, 482, 483, 489, 520, 530, 661, 662 coastguard: wreck claims 277–8 ; see also MCA Collision Convention 1910: proportionate fault rule 94–5 collision liability 90–5 : apportionment of liability 94; damages 93; liability 90; wreck and causation 91–2 Commune de Mesquer 672–3 , 689–93 , 702 compensation: death and injury of passengers 83–4 ; Maritime Labour Convention 76 Conlinebooking Note 709 constructive total loss 36–7 , 189–91 , 668; bareboat charterers 60–1 ; ownership of a wreck, acquiring 220–2 ; time charterers 66 consumer protection 77, 80, 83, 89, 154, 174, 193, 202, 607 container: problems 30–4 ; increased size 31; limitation, and 55; lost overboard 30; weight and contents 31; see also dangerous cargo, MSC Napoli contractor, choice of 603 Controlled Waste Regulations: EPA 1990 701 Coral Bulker 444 cost insurance freight: GA security 171–2 ; sale of good contracts 37 Costa Concordia 27–9 , 32; casualty 27; commercial choices for disposal 703; compulsory insurance 491; cost and liability 29, 81, 88, 103, 107, 110, 491, 531, 713; EEZ 454; liability cap 502, 508; limitation forum shopping 128–9 ; LLMC 1996 97, 110; P&I Club 128–9 , 201, 443, 511–13 , 605; recovery of bodies 597; removal claims 102–3 ; removal operation 28, 140, 156, 446–7 , 459, 470–1 , 474, 601, 641, 670, 696, 703; Rena 21, 713; responsibility for arranging wreck removal 602; scrapping 670, 682; shipowner liability 438; vessel classification 452; WRC 2007 comparisons 438, 452, 454, 459, 502, 508, 531, 543 CP Valour 444 crew 70–6 ; criminalisation of seafarers 71; fair treatment 72; Maritime Labour Convention 2006 73–6 ; master’s concerns after casualty 70 Page 803 dangerous cargo 15, 16, 137, 146, 257, 312, 418, 439, 440, 445; liability under contract for 51, 57–58 , 62, 64, 65, 105, 137, 662, 710, 711; liability 37, 150, 556; limitation and 98, 105, 137; misdescription of 31, 51, 440, 630; salvors and 195; WRC 2007, and 425, 438, 439, 440; wreck removal and 601; see also HNSC deadweight tonnage 135, 136, 148 DEFRA 264 Department for Business Energy and Industrial Strategy 250, 683: offshore installations 250 Department for Transport 250: Christos Bitas 657; costs incurred 549, 557; counter-pollution preparedness 250; Gaul 598; GLAs and 558; historic wreck recovery, and 332, 354; MAIB, and 266; MSA 1995 Part 9A 534–5 , 558–9 , 683–4 ; Odyssey Marine Exploration 332, 354–5 ; receiver of wreck, and 270; recycling regulation 683–4 ; shipping inquiries 266–8 ; SOSREP 260–1 ; UK coastguard 277; UK default wreck removal 544; WRC 2007 consultation 360, 529, 534, 536, 545, 547, 550, 551, 553, 554, 555, 558, 559 derelict and abandoned ships: WRC 2007 398–400 ; see also abandoned ships deviation 50, 69, 185, 199 Dismantlecon 712 disposal legislation: Basel Convention 1989 670–3 ; Environmental Protection Act 1900 701–2 ; Hong Kong Ship Recycling Convention 2009 676–8 ; LC Protocol 1996 659–63 , 692–3 ; London (Dumping) Convention 1972/1996 657–63 , 692–3 ; OSPAR Convention 1992 663–4 ; Ship Recycling Regulation 2013 678–85 ; UK Ship Recycling Requirements Regulations 2018 682–5 ; Waste Framework Directive 2008 685–703 ; Waste Shipment Regulation 2006 673–6 disposal of wreck 655–714 ; BIMCO 708–12 ; commercial choices 703–14 ; transboundary 670–6 DOALOS 320 Donaldson, Lord 12, 200, 249–50 , 257, 262, 265 Dona Paz 15 dumping: abandonment, or 667–9 ; scrapping of ships 669–70 ; ship recycling 676–85 ; ships and cargoes at sea 656–67 ; SOSREP 250–2 ; transboundary waste disposal 670–6 ; Waste Framework Directive 2008 685–703 EEZ: affected state definition 406–8 ; binding nature of WRC 2007 377–80 ; casualty consequence protection 321; coastal State action 380–1 ; creation, UNCLOS 299, 303–5 ; HNSC 2010; insurance cover 381–3 ; non-State party wrecks 377–83 ; pollution threat 310, 316–18 ; powers over UK 262; territorial waters 134; Tricolor/Kariba collision 360–1 ; UCH 2001 jurisdictional structure 339–40 , 351–2 ; UNCLOS Art 60 400–2 ; WRC 2007 368, 371–4 , 377–80 , 384, 385–7 , 388 EMSA: maritime accident review 6 Environmental Liability Directive 2004 150–1 ; HNSC 2010 144; pollution risks 626; WRC 2007 516 EPA 1990 701–2 Erika 12–14 , 135, 139, 140, 146, 150, 197, 253, 681, 689 EU: limitation fund recognition 124–7 EU legislation: Environmental Liability Directive 2004 150–1 ; Offshore Safety Directive 2013 150–1 ; Rome II Regulation 127–8 ; Ship Recycling Regulation 2013 678–85 ; Waste Framework Directive 2008 674, 683, 685–703 ; Waste Shipment Regulation 2006 673–6 ; see also Brussels I Regulation Recast Exempted Activities Order: Art 9 698; Art 17B 699–700 ; Art 28698; Explanatory Memorandum 699; Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 666; marine waste licensing 697 Exxon Valdez 11 Fedra 33, 91, 152, 161, 254, 445, 471, 573, 604, 612, 637 fixed and floating platforms: WRC 2007 400–2 flag State obligations 415–22 ; cooperation in wreck removal 421–2 ; reporting 417–21 ; state of ship registry 415–17 Floreana 448, 658, 670 Frustration 35, 40–43 , 49, 171, 185, 572, 579, 592 Fund Convention 1971: Amoco Cadiz 11; Braer 12; CLC 1992 134; IMCO 132; WRC 2007 371 Fund Convention 1992 138–40 ; Amoco Cadiz 11; Braer 12; CLC 1992 132–3 , 135; Commune de Mesquer 689–90 ; Environmental Liability Directive 2004 150; Erika 12; HNS Fund 149; LC Protocol 1996 663; maritime pollution liability conventions 515–19 ; Prestige 13, 442 Galapaface 448, 658, 670 Gaul 268, 321, 467, 598 general average 169–73 ; claims 170; cutting away wreck 173; security 171–2 Page 804 general lighthouse authority: directions, and 549; finances, and 534; locating/marking wrecks, and 540; powers 527–530 , 541, 544, 555; SOSREP, and 251; wreck removal, and 528–530 , 544, 555–559 Hague Rules: Art III r8 63; Art IV r5 54–5 ; Art IV r2(a) 66–7 ; cargo loss claims 68–9 ; liability for cargo loss or damage 44; liability scheme 45–8 ; time charterer 66–7 ; voyage charterer 62–3 Hague/Visby Rules: Article III 50; Article IV 50; Art IV r6 57–8 ; Athens Convention 2002 78, 82, 84; BIMCO 709–12 ; burden of proof 50; cargo overboard 49; carriage contracts 40–1 ; liability for cargo loss or damage 44; liability scheme 45–7 ; limitation of liability 53–5 ; proof of loss or damage 51–4 ; transhipment costs 40–1 ; voyage charterers 62; wreck cargo 710–11 Hamburg Rules 1978: proof of fault 46 Harbour authority: abandoned wrecks and 560; buoys, and 529; claims, and 93, 524–5 ; directions to 257–8 ; locating/marking wreck, and 540, 667; wreck removal, and 527–8 , 544, 558, 698 Haven 11 Heavycon 708–12 ; Heavyconbill, and 710 Himalaya clause 41, 49, 625, 633, 640, 708, 763; see also privity, of contract HNSC 2010 144–50 ; Art 7(5) 440; bareboat charterers 59; cargo owner’s liability 58; cargo removal 489–90 ; Commune de Mesquer 689; hazard definition 404; liability cap 502, 507; multi-state limitation proceedings 117; pollution claims 100–2 , 515–16 ; pollution threats 432; SCOPIC 593; state liability 435; state of ship’s registry 415; time charterers 64; voyage charterers 61; WRC 2007 130, 375, 385, 492, 519–20 , 530; wreck and cargo removal claims 103 Hong Kong Convention 2009: Ship Recycling Regulation 2013 679–82 ; wreck disposal 676–8 human remains 222, 280, 281, 282, 333, 346, 349, 396, 406, 466–8 , 479, 596–600 Ievoli Sun 30, 662 IMDG: nuclear liability conventions 521 IMO 375–6 ; Baltic Ace 121; “Blue Cards” 76; Bunkers Convention 2001 143; CLC 99-cruise ship wrecks, reaction to 15; defences of liability 80–1 ; Environmental Liability Directive 2004 151; EU compensation regimes 14; “Guidelines on Fair Treatment of Seafarers in the Event of a Maritime Accident” 71–3 ; “Guidelines on Provision of Financial Security in Case of Abandonment of Seafarers” 73, 74–5 ; “Guidelines on Shipowners’ Responsibilities in Respect of Contractual Claims for Personal Injury to or Death of Seafarers’’ 73; HNSC 1996 145–6 ; Legal Committee 88, 135; “Liability and Compensation Regarding Claims for Death, Personal Injury and Abandonment of Seafarers” 72–3 ; liability for pollution following wreck 131–3 ; MEPC 297; Salvage Convention 1989 289; Torrey Canyon 6, 10; UNCLOS, obligations 300, 306, 308; WRC 2007 200 Institute of International Law 231, 290–3 , 352, 394 in specie salvage award 245–6 influential wreck casualties 5–29 see also cargo problems; other wrecks 14; tanker wrecks; individual ships’ names insurance: cargo cover 179–188 ; H&M cover 175, 179; liability cover 197–209 ; practice of underwriters 193–6 ; total loss 188–193 ; wreck, and generally 173–5 ; wreck and passengers 86–8 insurer’s rights 231–9 ; long lost wrecks 237–9 ; reinsurance 234–5 ; subrogation 234; to take over property 232–4 ; war risks 235–7 international conventions: Athens Convention 2002 78–9 ; Athens Convention 1974 78, 85,89; Basel Convention 1989 670–3 ; Bonn Agreement 657, 323, 387; Brussels I Regulation Recast 125–7 ; Bunkers Convention 2001 141–3 , 520–1 ; CLC 1992 133–7 , 516–19 ; Collision Convention 1910 94–5 ; Fund Convention 1992 138–9 ; Fund Convention 1971 11, 12, 134, 132, 371; Hague-Visby Rules 1968 40–1 , 44, 51–3 , 53–5 , 710–11 ; Hamburg Rules 1978 46; HNSC 2010 144–9 , 519–20 ; Hong Kong Convention 2009 676–82 ; Intervention Convention 1969 296–9 ; LC Protocol 1996 657–64 ; LC 1972 657–64 , 667; Limitation Convention 1924 96; LLMC 1996 99, 116, 552–3 , 554; LLMC 1976 97, 109, 111; London (Dumping) Convention 1972/1996 657–63 ; Maritime Labour Convention 2006 71–7 ; MARPOL 308–12 , 400–1 , 407, 417–18 , 420, 661–2 ; Montreal Compromise 165; OPRC-HNS Protocol 1990 321–4 OSPAR Convention 1992 663–4 ; Paris Convention 1960 521; Salvage Convention 1910 158, 289, 577–8 ; Salvage Convention 1989 514–15 , 578–9 ; SCOPIC 2018 167–8 , Page 805 567–94 ; Supplementary Fund Protocol 2003 140–1 ; UCH 2001 315–16 , 325–55 ; UNCLOS 299–321 ; UNESCO 213, 325–6 , 340, 343, 349; Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 370–6 ; Vienna Nuclear Damage Convention 521; Wreck Removal Convention 2007 359–566 Intervention Convention 132, 296–8 , 306, 319, 361; 1973 Protocol 252, 262; “Affected State” 410–11 ; EEZ 380; major harmful consequences 405; maritime casualty 394, 399; proportionality 431; related interests definition 405–8 ; ship definition 400–2 ; state liability 434; Torrey Canyon 296; WRC 2007 measures 375, 377–8 , 423, 438, 530 ISM Code 419 ISU Sub-Contract (Award Sharing) 2001 572, 573 jurisdiction: bills of lading 39, 53, 55–56 ; CLC 134; collisions 94; HNSC 2010 149; law of sea and UNCLOS 295, 298, 300–321 , 373, 660–661 ; limitation 117–11 , 504, 507; ownership and possession 214–215 , 221, 242–244 ; passengers 90; P&I 202–204 ; recycling 678, 680; States and SCOPIC 590–2 ; UCH 2001 336–349 , 415; sovereign immunity 287–293 , 351–352 ; UK 262, 265, 351, 529, 548, 558, 571, 673; US and salvage 350; WRC 2007 362, 376–387 , 407–408 , 480, 504, 512 Kea Trader 30, 448, 696 Lagik 360, 526 law of finds 246–7 law of the sea 295–324 ; Intervention Convention 1969 296–9 ; OPRC 1990 321–4 ; polluting wrecks and intervention 296; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 299–321 LC 1972 657–64 , 667; objects and cargo lost at sea 396; relationship with 692–3 ; Waste Framework Directive 2008 692–3 LC Protocol 1996 657–64 ; Art10 660–1 ; civil liability for dumping 663; objects and cargo lost at sea 396; Waste Framework Directive 2008 692–3 liability: burden of proof 50; cargo loss or damage 44–55 ; cargo owner’s 56–7 ; collision liability 90–5 ; death and injury, for 80–2 ; see also Hague/Visby Rules; insurance cover 197–210 ; navigation error 48–9 ; management exception 48–9 ; pay salvage, to 161; pollution 131–51 ; proof of loss or damage 51–2 ; WRC 2007 shipowners’ and insurers’ 437–522 Limitation Convention 1924 96 limitation of liability 95–130 : Baltic Ace litigation 119–21 ; ‘breaking’ limits 112–13 ; claims subject to 99–105 ; craft subject to 97; establishing fund 116; forum shopping 128–30 ; fund recognition and the EU 124–7 ; LLMC fund and wreck removal reservation 122–3 ; multi-state proceedings 117–18 ; persons entitled 98; policy 128–30 ; procedure and forum shopping 116–30 ; salvors and wreck removal contractors 106–8 ; WRC 2007 128–30 LLMC 1976 97, 109, 111; air-cushioned vehicles 395; floating platforms 401; fund and wreck removal reservation 122–3 ; opt-out for wreck and cargo removal claims 100, 101, 102, 104, 114–16 , 143, 151, 489, 490, 493, 498, 502, 503, 505–8 , 514, 516, 517, 521, 531, 532, 545, 552, 553, 554,; gross tonnage 493–4 ; limitation of liability 96, 119, 122, 128, 503; major casualty 84; passenger claims 90; Rena 21, 26; UK reservation 115, 552, 553, 554; Uno Case 126; Waste Framework Directive, relationship with 693; WRC 2007 508–10 , 514, 532, 535, 553; see also limitation of liability, LLMC 1996 LLMC 1996: Art 1(6) 552–3 ; Art 2(1)(e) 554; Art 6(2) 554; Art 7 99; Art 10 116; Art 11 116; Baltic Ace 120–2 ; Hague/Visby Rules 53–5 ; limitation of liability 57, 84–5 , 96–7 , 109–11 , 119, 128, 142–3 , 147, 490, 517, 520–1 , 624, 626; MSC Napoli 17; passengers, wreck and 77; pollution claims 100–2 ; Shen Neng 1 489–90 ; The Cape Bari 624; WRC 2007 399, 402, 492–4 , 502–11 , 514, 532–8 ; wreck removal 369; wreck removal reservation 115, 122–5 , 130; see also limitation of liability, LLMC 1976 LOF 7, 16, 19, 38, 108, 153, 154, 155, 157, 158, 160, 161, 163, 168, 169, 172, 173, 239, 254, 255, 433, 444, 447, 448, 515, 568, 569, 571, 572, 573, 578, 579–82 , 586, 588, 589, 590, 592, 594, 597, 602, 611, 612, 620, 674 LSSAC: cl 2(d) 582; LOF 2011 163 Lusitania 216–7 , 226–7 , 238, 242, 247, 269 Lutine 229, 237–8 MAIB 266 Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009: dumping in the UK 664–7 ; marine licensing 696, 699; oil recovery equipment 264; Part 4 664; wreck disposal 664–7 marine insurance 173–210 ; cargo cover 179–87 ; H&M cover 175–8 ; insurance cover for liabilities 197–210 ; practice of underwriters Page 806 193–6 ; role with shipwreck 173–4 ; Ship Recycling Regulation 2013 674; total loss 188–92 , 195–6 maritime casualty: WRC 2007 394–5 Maritime Labour Convention 2006 71–7 ; compensation 75; financial security for abandonment 74; implementation of financial security provisions 76; indemnity for unpaid wages 75; P&I Club cover 208–9 ; repatriation costs 74 MARPOL: coastal state 407, 420; LC 1972 661–662 ; ship definition 400–1 ; UNCLOS 308–12 ; WRC 2007 obligations 417–18 Marchioness 15, 79, 267 MCA 250, 263, 264, 277: MSC Napoli , and 15, 16, 18, 264–266 , 276; Receiver of Wreck 270; recycling 679, 683; reporting accidents 267; SOLAS waters 449; SOSREP and engaging contractors 559 MEPC 297 MIA 1906 174, 198, 232–7 ; amendments 193; constructive total loss 190–1 ; s55 177, 199, 499; s57(1) 188; wilful misconduct definition 499 Mikhail Lermontov 15, 438 MOD 220, 283–4 294, 354 Mont Louis 359–60 , 408, 491, 521 mortgagee 178–9 , 668, 706 MSA 1995 527–30 ; general lighthouse authorities s 253 528–30 ; GLAs and wreck removal 556–9 ; harbour activities s252 527–8 ; national wreck removal law 523–66 ; Part 9A 523–66 ; Part 9A administrative provisions 539–47 ; Part 9A liability provisions 547–56 ; Sch 3A 252 New Flame 445–6 , 491, 604 MSC Napoli 15–18 , 445; casualty 15, 459; charterers 36, 39, 40, 56, 69, 98, 105, 257; containers 31, 52, 57, 118, 163, 182, 252, 490, 575, 671, 708; insurance 177, 180, 182, 185, 491; legal claims 17, 105, 177, 445, 491, 575; limitation 105, 110; removal operations 16, 254, 445, 454, 601, 660–1 , 664, 670–1 , 700, 703, 708; response coordination 251, 254, 264–6 , 559, 571, 591, 596, 684; YAR 170 MSMSA 1997 284–5 MTA 1994: Rena 19, 20–1 NCP 250–1 ; MSC Napoli 265; public agencies 263–4 non-State parties: Athens Convention, and 78, 87; LLMC 503; Basel Convention, and 672; UCH 2001, and 315; Hong Kong Convention, and 678; UNCLOS, and wreck 309; WRC 2007, and 370–1 , 374, 376–87 , 409; 452–453 , 494–497 , 503, 512, 513, 514; WRC 2007, UK MSA 1995, and 535, 536, 540, 541, 543, 544, 548, 552, notice of abandonment 12, 171, 187, 190–193 , 195–6 , 224, 231–234 , 236, 238, 525 Oceanus 446 Oliva 447 OPRC 1990 249, 250, 312, 321–4, 595; coastal states 312; public relations 595; WRC 2007 387, 417–18 , 420, 422 OPRC-HNS Protocol 322 OSPAR Convention 1992 663–4 , 666–7 ownership 213–22 ; acquisition 220–2 ; human remains 222; identification 216–20 ; choice-of-law 214–5 ; Crown right 249, 268–70 , 272, 279, 286 Paris Convention 1960: nuclear liabilities 521 P&I Clubs 174; Athens Convention 2002 88; availability of cover 197; crew claims 208–10 ; cover for casualties 197–205 ; financial security for abandonment 74–5 ; HNS diplomatic conference 130; Large Casualty Working Group 443; major incident analysis 32–4 ; Montreal Compromise 165; SCOPIC 2018 167–8 , 582–3 ; shipowner liability 456, 576, 602; spill handling 14; state action 603; tankers 135–6 ; typical cover for casualties 198–200 ; WRC 2007 469, 491, 501–2 , 511–14 ; wreck liabilities 204–7 ; wreck removals 69–70 passengers 77–89 : Athens Convention 2002, application of 78–9 ; claims 89; compensation 83–4 ; compulsory insurance 86–8 ; domestic carriage 89; forum issues 89; liability for death and injury 80–2 ; limits of liability 83–4 ; luggage 85–6 platforms: decommissioning 712; LC 1972 658; limitation 97–98 , 129, 448; OPRC reporting 322; recycling 680; salvage 158, 159, 577; WRC 2007 394, 395, 400–402 , 407, 449, 450, 451–452 , 493, 494, 533, 539, 712, polluting wrecks: intervention beyond territorial seas 296; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea jurisdiction 316–21 pollution liability 131–51 ; Bunkers Convention 2001 141–3 ; CLC 1992 133–7 ; Environmental Liability Directive 2004 150–1 ; Fund Convention 1992 138–9 ; HNSC 2010 144–9 ; international action after Torrey Canyon 131; Supplementary Fund Protocol 2003 140 Page 807 possession: salvor’s right of 239–41 , 396; of sunken wreck 241–5 ; Receiver of Wreck’s 272–6 ; harbour authority 527–8 , 717 Prestige 13, 14, 18, 135, 139, 140, 146, 203, 204, 253, 297, 304, 431, 442, 462, 493, 511, 512, 531, 596 Privity 47, 112: actual fault, and 47, 67, 112, 113, 119, 199; of assured 178, 183, 199; of contract, and 108, 708 and see Himalaya clause Projectcon 709, 711, 712 proof of loss or damage 51–3 proportionate action 321 proportionate costs 471, 478, 531, 599 proportionate fault 94 proportionate loss 117 proportionate marking 465, 480 proportionate measures 33, 319, 414, 431, 433, 436, 441, 456, 471 proportionate protection 320 proportionate removal 475 proportionate responses 411 Protection of Military Remains Act 1986 249, 280–5 ; human remains 222; salvage law 331 Protection of Wrecks Act 1973 213, 249, 278–80 ; Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 285–6 ; historic wrecks 325, 331–2 , 352–3 ; temporary exclusion zones 262–3 Public relations 595–6 quantitative risk assessment (QRA) 605–606 reasonable measures see proportionate action; proportionate costs; proportionate fault; proportionate loss; proportionate marking; proportionate measures; proportionate protection; proportionate removal; proportionate responses receiver of wreck 270–7 Recyclecon 2012 678, 682, 705, 712 recycling: regulation 683–4 ; see also dumping, scrapping, ship recycling refuge, place of 12, 16, 18, 89, 162, 170, 194, 253–4 , 265, 323, 462, 596, 627, 684 registered shipowner’s liability for costs 437–56 ; costs recoverable 441–3 ; liability for costs 437–9 ; persons to claim 440–1 ; persons to pay costs 439–40 ; WRC 2007 437–522 Registration Regulations 1993: ship deregistration, wreck and 705 Rena 18–27 , 320, 406, 442, 444, 447, 595, 661, 666; bills of lading 39, 56, 630; casualty 18–19 , 608; charterers 36, 39, 69, 257–8 ; consent order 24–5 ; criminal proceedings 71; legal claims 21, 32, 48, 197, 264, 459, 491, 511, 531, 605; legal problems 20, 145, 168, 207, 318, 481, 523, 560, 612; limitation 96, 103, 110, 114, 128–9 , 503, 532; practical problems 20, 30, 32, 320–1 , 608, 618, 630, 661; salvage problems 168, 569, 571, 575, 583, 591; trust fund and finality 320, 712–14 ; WRC 2007 comparisons 471, 474, 490, 502–3 , 508, 511–13 repatriation costs: Maritime Labour Convention 2006 74 reporting of accidents 267 rights: abandonment 222–31 ; insurers 231–9 ; salvors and finders 239–48 ; state rights 249–94 ; ownership 213–22 Rokia Delmas 445 Rome II Regulation: Art 15 127–8 Sale see also wreck (sale of), wreck (sale of goods contracts, and) Saleform 2012 705 salvage: applicable law 153; environment, and 163–8 ; equitable jurisdiction 571; frustration of charter 572, 579; in specie award 245–6 ; law of 152–68 ; liability to pay 161; non-commercialisation of cultural heritage 334–6 ; of or by State vessels 276; professional salvage and wreck removal contractors 155; receiver of Wreck’s function 271–2 ; reward 159–61 , 164; SCOPIC 2018 167–8 , 567–94 ; security for payment 162; ships about to sink or strand 396–8 ; special compensation 164–6 ; terminology 154; underwater cultural heritage 327–32 Salvage Association 216, 239 Salvage Convention 1910 158; Art 3 577–8 ; Art 14 289 Salvage Convention 1989 103, 137, 144, 154–5 , 157, 158–9 , 167, 294, 398, 514–15 , 578–9 ; Art 1 255–6 ; Art 3 577; Art 4 289–90 ; Art 5 430, 549; Art 6 38–9 , 578–9 , 590; Art 7 571–2 ; Art 8 573–4 , 611; Art 10 573; Art 12 575; Art 13 108, 160, 161–2 , 575, 576–7 , 596; Art 14 108, 159, 172, 433, 575–6 , 586, 589, 698; Art 18 574; Art 19 240, 577–8 ; Art 20 162; Art 21 162–3 ; compensation 550; cooperation 387; environmental salvage issues 363; historic wreck 332; IMO international conventions 300; liability salvage 163–4 ; recovery of bodies 596–600 ; SCOPIC 2018 168, 586, 589–90 , 593, 698; state vessels 348; Torrey Canyon 131–2 ; voluntary salvage 573–8 ; WRC 2007 400–2 , 429, 535–6 ; WRC overlap 514–15 ; wreck definition 213; YAR 169 Page 808 Salvcon 2005 570, 573 Salvhire 2005 570, 573 salvors and finders’ rights 239–48 ; finds 246–8 in specie salvage award 245–6 ; possession of sunken wrecks 241–5 ; rights to possession 239–41 SCOPIC 165, 167–9 , 515, 600; Appendix B 584; Appendix C 585; bunkers and caretaking role 144, 254, 582–4 , 602, 603–4 , 698; cl 1 590; cl 2 584, 587; cl 3 587, 614–15 ; cl 4 587–92 ; cl 5 692; cl 9 578, 589–92 ; cl 12 584; cl 13 585–6 ; cl 14 593–4 ; cl 15 172; CTL, and 190; damages, and 60; GA, and 171, 172; limitation, and 108; MSC Napoli 16; P&I Clubs, and 32, 33, 199, 205, 444, 445, 446, 572, 577, 608, 610; preventing pollution from wreck 593–4 ; Rena 19, 571; Salvage Convention 1989 154, 155, 158, 188, 254; security 614–5 ; special hull representative 71, 194; special casualty representative 71, 577, 584–5 , 632; special representatives 71, 585–6 ; termination provisions 571, 578, 586–93 , 621; transition from salvage to wreck removal 569, 570, 582–94 , 605; waste 690; WRC 2007 515 scrapping 669–70 ; see also dumping, ship recycling Sea Diamond 446, 503 Sea Empress 12, 140, 249, 250, 257, 265, 596, 685 seagoing 79, 85, 89, 97, 134, 141, 145, 395, 402, 448–452 , 493, 553 Seawheel Rhine/Assi Eurolink case 123, 126–8 Sewol 15, 156, 320, 467, 492, 597, 598, 599, 610, 710 Shen Neng 1 112, 147, 320, 447, 489 ship recycling 676–85 Ship Recycling Regulation 2013 678–85 ; deregistration 706; Waste Shipment Regulation 2006 673–4 Ship Recycling Requirements (EU Exit) Regulations 2019: Brexit entry into force 679 Ship Recycling Requirements Regulations 2018 679, 682–5 shipowners’ and insurers’ liabilities: Bunkers Convention 2001 520–1 ; cargo removal under WRC 2007 481–90 ; CLC 1992 516–19 ; compulsory insurance 491–514 ; defences to shipowner liability 456–62 ; HNSC 2010 519–20 ; limitation of shipowners’ liability 490–1 ; LLMC 508–10 ; overlaps with other maritime liability regimes 514–22 P&I Club 511–14 ; registered shipowner’s liability for costs 437–56 ; time limits 462–4 ; triggers to liability 464–81 ; WRC 2007 437–522, 490–1 single ship company 19, 56, 74, 77, 102, 113, 128, 132, 135, 142, 183, 187, 202, 360, 471, 500–1 , 524, 531, 568, 602–3 , 614, 628 Smart 30, 147, 446, 447, 489, 604, 606, 610, 658, 661, 670 SOLAS: coastal states 312; marine environment regulation 309; other ship obligations 259–60 ; sea definition 449; State obligations 426; wreck reporting 418, 419, 420 SOSREP 12, 261, 265; coastguard, and 276; directions 252–5 , 257, 258, 265; exclusion zones, and 263; GLAs, and 426, 556, 557–9 ; MSC Napoli , and 16–18 ; role 250–252 ; place of refuge 253–4 ; power to act 260; public relations 596 wreck removal 539, 541, 542, 544, 545, 556, 557–9 , sovereign immunity 287–94 State: non-commercial ships WRC 2007 definition 402–3 State rights 249–94 ; Affected States’ powers and obligations 422–35 ; coastguard 277–8 ; flag State obligations 415–22 ; powers in territorial sea 435–6 ; receiver of wreck 270–7 ; shipping inquiries 266–8 ; sovereign immunity 287–94 ; UK regulation 249–66 ; wreck protection legislation 278–87 ; wreck, to 268–70 sunken or stranded ship: WRC 2007 395–6 Supplementary Fund Protocol 2003 140–1 ; Erika packages 13–14 tanker wrecks 10–14 Tanio 11, 428, 431, 443 Tasman Spirit 71, 572, 606 territorial waters: extension of WRC 2007 530–4 ; State powers 435–6 ; WRC 2007 application 410–14 terrorism: Athens Convention 2002 459–60 time charter 36, 45, 58, 62, 63–70 , 556, 572; CLC 137; collision 93; dangerous cargo 57; directions, and 256–7 ; limitation and 105–106 , 109; orders to owner 41, 56; salvage of bunkers 161, 165, 257; termination 41–43 ; unsafe port, and 56 Titanic 237, 238, 243–8, 284–5 , 303, 314, 345–6 , 597 … Tojo Maru 47, 106, 107, 143, 153, 556, 574, 578 tonnage: dwt 9, 135; limitation 9, 96, 99, 105, 106, 107, 109, 110, 135, 136, 148, 624,; WRC 2007 insurance, and 365, 381, 382, 434, 449, 450, 451, 452, 492–4 , 545, Torrey Canyon 6–10 ; BP charterer, and 7–10 ; casualty 7; international action after 30, 32, 131–2 , 134, 138, 144, 163, 184, 249, 252, 261, 296, 359, 361–4 , 408, 425, 514, 656, Page 809 663, 697; legal claims 8–9 , 48, 56, 110, 123, 361–2 , 381, 441, 575–6 , 590 Towcon 2008 109, 569, 573, 607, 608, 631, 708, 711 Towhire 2008 109, 569, 573, 607, 608, 611, 615, 622, 624, 631, 632, 708, 711 Tricolor 28, 92, 320, 360, 361, 444, 595 TSWR Regulations 2007: wreck disposal powers 674 Tubantia 226, 241–2 , 287 UCH 2001 315–16 , 325–55 ; dispute settlement 389; elimination of law of salvage 334–6 ; international cooperation 344–6 ; jurisdictional structure 337–41 ; regulatory regime 341–3 ; Salvage Convention 1989 332; state practice 349–55 ; state-owned vessels 346–9 ; UNCLOS 306, 316; underwater cultural heritage, definition 332–4 ; UNESCO implementation 349; US approach to historic wreck 286; WRC 2007 420 UK Club Rules 2018 : payment first by the Owner 201 UK legislation: Accident Reporting Regulations 2012 266–7 ; Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 285–6 ; Carriage of Passengers Regulations 2012 89; Environmental Protection Act 1900 701–2 ; Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 264, 664–7 ; MIA 1906 174, 198, 232–7 ; MSA 1995 252–63 , 523–66 ; MTA Maritime Transport Act 1994 19–21 ; Protection of Military Remains Act 1986 249, 280–25 ; Protection of Wrecks Act 1973 213, 249, 278–80 ; Registration Regulations 1993 705; Ship Recycling Requirements (EU Exit) Regulations 2019: Brexit entry into force 679; Ship Recycling Requirements Regulations 2018 679, 682–5 ; Ship Recycling Requirements Regulation 2013 678–85 ; TSWR Regulations 2007 674; Waste Regulations 2011 694–6 ; Wreck Removal Convention Act 2011 524, 534–5 , 550 UK regulation: abandoned ships 559–66 ; accession choices for states 530–4 ; dumping 664–7 ; intervention powers 252–63 ; local harbour legislation 524–7 ; marine waste licensing and exemptions 696–701 ; MSC Napoli , response coordination 264–6 ; pollution preparedness and response 249–50 ; SOSREP, relationship between public agencies 263–4 ; role of 250–2 ; waste regulations 694–6 ; wreck response, and 249–66 UK territorial waters: rights outside 269–70 ; rights within 268–9 UNCLOS 299–321 ; development 299–300 ; jurisdiction over pollution hazards 316–21 ; jurisdictional regime 300–6 ; WRC 2007 371–5 ; wrecks, and 306–16 underwater cultural heritage 325–58 ; definition 332–4 ; good archaeological practice 336–7 ; implementation through UNESCO 349; international cooperation 355–345 ; jurisdictional structure 337–41 ; non-commercialisation and salvage 334–6 ; protection of historic wrecks 325; regulated activities 336; regulatory and deterrent regime 341–4 ; state-owned vessels 346–9 ; state practice 349–55 ; UCH 2001 325–32 ; UK position 351–5 ; US position 350–1 ; warships 346–9 UNESCO Convention: historic wrecks 213, 325–6 , 343; Director-General of 340; implementation of UCH 2001 349; Italian cultural heritage sites 340; ISA reporting 306; UCH 2001 306; US position 350–1 ; World Heritage Site 448 Uno case 121–3 , 126, 128 unpaid wages 75 US Abandoned Shipwreck Act 1987 213, 228–9 , 247, 286–7 , 350 V Due 254 vessels in distress 270–1 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 370–6 ; Art 34 371, 378, 379–80 ; Art 38 383; Art 41 372; IMO Legal Committee 379; MSA 1995 741; WRC 2007 382 Vienna Nuclear Damage Convention 521 Voyage charter 36, 43, 45, 61–3 , 64, 65, 66, 109, 609, 710; GA 171, 173; CLC 137; dangerous cargo 57; directions, and 256–7 ; limitation and 105–106 , 109; salvage, and 38; unsafe port, and 56; see also Wreckhire 2010 warships: WRC 2007 402–3 ; see also sovereign immunity Waste: EU Waste Framework Directive 674, 683, 685–703 ; transboundary disposal, and 670–676 Waste Framework Directive 2008 674, 683, 685–703 ; adoption in the UK 693–703 ; Commune de Mesquer 689–90 ; hire payments 616; Ship Recycling Regulations 684–5 ; wreck 690–3 Waste Regulations 2011 694–6 ; Environmental Protection Act 1990 701; practical compliance 703 Waste Shipment Regulation 2006: wreck disposal 673–6 Page 810 wilful misconduct 113, 136, 138, 176, 177, 178, 182, 183, 184, 187, 196, 198, 199, 207, 458, 459, 465, 498, 499–501 , 502, 506, 552, 656, 663, 726, 743 wreccum maris 211–2 , 247, 268–9 wreck: cargo position after 36; carriage of goods contracts, and 35–69 ; collision liability, and 90–4 ; charterers, and 58–69 ; crew, and 70–6 ; definitions 4; disposal 655–714 ; general average, and 169–73 ; law of salvage, and 152–68 ; law of the sea, and 295–324 ; limitation of liability, and 95–130 ; marine insurance, and 173–210 ; maritime law, and 3; non-State parties in territorial sea 376–7 ; ownership 213–22 ; passengers, and 77–89 ; polluting wrecks 296, 316–21 ; pollution liability, and 131–51 ; practice of underwriters 193–6 ; protection legislation 278–94 ; receiver of 270–7 ; rights, in relation to 211–48 sale of 9, 191–2 , 209, 215, 232, 235, 275, 326, 328, 433–4 , 465, 527, 556, 561, 628, 649, 668–9 , 672, 675, 677, 681, 703–7 ; sale of goods contracts, and 37; shipping inquiries, and 266–8 ; state rights, and 249–94 , 268–70 ; success in preventing 156–7 ; UK regulations 249–66 wreck cases: Baltic Ace 119–21 ; Christos Bitas 657; Commune de Mesquer 689–93 , 702; Costa Concordia 27–9 ; MSC Napoli 15–18 , 265; Rena 18–25 ; Seawheel Rhine/Assi Eurolink case 126–7 ; Torrey Canyon 6–9 , 131; see also , individual ships’ names wreck disposal; see disposal of wreck wreck protection legislation: Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 285–6 ; comparative US approach 286–7 ; Protection of Military Remains Act 1986 280–5 ; Protection of Wrecks Act 1973 278–80 wreck removal 567–94 ; ancillary contracts, and 607; contracts 607–54 ; operations and contracts 595–654 ; public relations 595–6 ; range of technical operations 600–2 ; recovery of bodies 596–600 ; responsibility for arranging contracts 602–4 ; salvage, and 567–73 ; SCOPIC 582–94 ; tendering 604–7 ; termination of services 573–82 Wreckfixed 2010: analysis 633–639 ; comparisons 633, 639–641 ; limitation waiver 109; risk allocation 610–11 ; text facsimile 767 Wreckhire 2010 108, 143, 165, 171, 584, 594, 606, 608, 610–632 , 692, 708; analysis 610–632 ; bodies 600; comparisons 633, 634, 635, 636, 637, 638, 639–641 , 642, 643, 644, 645, 647, 648, 649; limitation waiver 109; risk allocation 610–11 ; text facsimile 753 Wreckstage 2010 608, 639–651 , 708, 712; analysis 639–651 ; comparisons 639–641 ; Explanatory notes 793; limitation waiver 109; risk allocation 610–11 ; text facsimile 781 WRC 2007 359–566 ; accession choices for States 530–4 ; Affected State 406–8 ; Art 12(1) 508–11 ; Art 12(10) 499; creation 359–92 ; development 361–70 ; EU Waste Framework Directive 2008, relationship with 693; extension/opt-in to territorial sea 376, 377, 393, 410–14 , 456, 478, 512, 513, 531, 533, 538; hazard definition 404–5 ; international legal order, and 370–6 ; limitation of liability 128–30 ; non-state parties, and 376–87 , 452–3 ; related interests definition 405–6 ; removal definition 406; ships covered 448–453 ; shipowners’ and insurers’ liabilities 437–522 ; state territorial waters 530–4 ; states’ rights and duties 415–36 ; UNCLOS, and 371–5 ; UK enactment 534–9 ; wreck definition 393–404 ; wrecks that pose a hazard 393–408 WRCA 2011 534–5 , 550; MSA 1990 Part 9A 539, 557; UK legislation 524; WRC 2007, incorporation of 535–8 , 538 YAR 170; cutting away wreck 173; YAR 2016 170–2 ; YAR 1994 170

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