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Index

Law of Construction Disputes, The

Page 663 Index Index Abatement set-off vs 279 – 281 ACA forms of contract 34 Accord and satisfaction 199 – 200 ACE forms of contract 34 , 81 , 109 Act of God 138 , 144 , 147 , 321 Adjudication 344 , 357 – 358 development of non-statutory 24 – 33 England 26 – 27 France 31 – 33 Germany 30 – 31 international cases 27 – 30 Dispute Adjudication Boards see under Dispute Boards HGCRA 1996 344 , 358 – 359 , 378 , 387 adjudicator 359 , 365 challenging decision 367 costs 367 , 370 – 371 dispute 360 – 362 dispute under construction contract 363 enforcement 367 – 368 mandatory provisions 358 mistake: correcting decision 366 – 367 , 371 NEC3 172 oral and partly written contracts 363 – 365 , 370 process 365 – 368 reasons for decision 366 referral notice 365 – 367 restrictions 358 serial decisions 407 time limits 359 , 364 , 365 , 366 JCT: changes made in SBC05 168 NEC3 172 Scheme for Construction Contracts 168 , 358 , 359 – 360 , 368 adjudicator 365 , 368 – 370 costs 370 notice 368 referral notice 369 serial decisions 407 , 412 time limits 369 serial decisions conundrum 407 election 407 – 416 set-off 416 – 418 Sharia – Islamic law 13 stare decisis 3 Affirmation of contract after repudiatory breach 195 – 197 Agency subcontractors 139 Amicable settlement after notice of dissatisfaction 419 Anticipatory repudiation 194 – 195 Applicable law 1 Arbitration 347 agreement 347 – 348 , 387 – 395 list of contents 395 amiable compositeur or ex aequo et bono 350 Arbitration Act 1996 347 arbitrator 348 – 349 award 349 – 350 , 403 confidentiality 402 – 403 disclosure 395 – 397 e-  397 – 402 Dispute Board Decisions 17 , 418 , 419 enforcement of decisions in interim period before arbitral award 419 – 434 document only 350 enforcement 13 – 14 of foreign awards in UK 403 – 404 England: seventeenth century 18 – 19 high-low 344 , 350 litigation vs mediation vs 345 – 346 mediation 345 , 350 Sharia – Islamic law 10 – 11 , 12 , 13 – 16 Page 664 stare decisis 3 third parties: 1999 Act 289 Battle of the forms 51 – 54 Bilateral contracts 56 Capacity 44 Causation 236 – 241 , 269 – 271 , 333 Certification 203 – 217 errors 205 – 206 fairness 214 – 215 , 217 FIDIC Red Book: interim payment certificates 204 ICE: Measurement Version 169 – 170 impartiality of certifier 206 – 208 , 214 , 215 – 216 , 217 interim certificates 206 liability of certifier history 208 – 217 natural justice 206 , 214 , 215 , 217 repudiatory breach 189 requirements, certificate 205 variations: final certificates 231 Civil law 6 – 9 , 13 , 256 countries 9 differences between common and 8 – 9 , 45 jurisprudence constante 5 – 6 Napoleonic Code 6 , 7 – 8 Claims 235 – 236 abatement vs set-off 279 – 281 causation 236 – 241 contribution 241 – 244 damages see separate entry extension of time 264 – 265 concurrent delay 269 – 271 standard forms 265 – 266 who determines extension 266 – 267 specific performance 45 , 73 , 115 , 255 – 256 , 287 Collateral warranties 167 , 209 , 210 , 283 – 289 formation of subcontract: raised but not pursued 104 net contribution clauses 283 , 285 subcontractor: defect issues 131 third parties: Act 1999 285 – 289 opting out 289 Common law 1 – 6 countries 5 differences between civil and 8 – 9 , 45 history 2 obiter dictum 5 ratio decidendi 5 stare decisis 2 – 6 Conciliation 345 France 32 – 33 Germany 30 – 31 Sharia – Islamic law 10 Condition precedent interim certificates 206 time at large 328 time-bar clause 339 , 340 – 341 , 342 Conditions contract terms 58 – 59 Confidentiality arbitration 402 – 403 Consideration 44 – 47 variation and new 222 – 223 Construction contract agreement to agree 58 battle of the forms 51 – 54 capacity 44 conditions 58 – 59 consideration 44 – 47 variation and new 222 – 223 defining 41 – 42 HGCRA 1996 125 , 363 estimate for work 55 – 56 express terms 59 , 79 , 80 , 81 , 108 , 117 , 185 , 208 , 288 fairness and fair dealing 56 – 57 , 59 formation 41 – 50 implied agreements 44 implied terms 58 , 59 , 99 , 108 , 407 access to or possession of site 111 , 115 – 116 , 117 , 126 business efficacy test 59 ground conditions 121 – 122 officious bystander test 59 innominate terms 59 intent to be legally bound 47 – 48 invitation to treat 42 – 43 letters of intent 50 offer and acceptance 42 – 44 , 52 , 54 oral 49 – 50 , 108 privity of contract 48 – 49 , 137 , 283 , 285 severability clauses 58 Subject to Contract 52 tenders 54 – 57 uncertainty 58 unilateral 43 – 44 bilateral contract vs 57 warranties 58 Construction operations HGCRA 1996 125 , 358 , 359 , 371 Construction tenders 54 – 57 Page 665 Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 text 469 – 474 Contribution money claims 241 – 244 Cost reimbursement or cost plus fee contract 39 Costs adjudication HGCRA 1996 367 , 370 – 371 Scheme for Construction Contracts 370 Dispute Boards 383 refusal to mediate 351 – 355 , 356 – 357 Damages civil law countries 256 contract vs tort 249 – 254 defective work 189 , 235 diminution in value 246 – 247 , 271 – 279 encroachment 323 extension of time 265 FIDIC Forms of Contract 184 – 185 instead of rescission 197 licence to enter site 113 , 114 , 115 , 116 in lieu of specific performance 255 liquidated 159 , 235 , 256 – 263 , 329 – 334 , 336 – 337 , 341 commercial justification 261 – 262 delay claims and 263 exclusive remedy 261 float 267 – 268 force majeure 143 genuine pre-estimate of loss 257 , 261 – 262 ICE conditions of contract 169 , 170 new test 262 – 263 penalty 257 – 259 , 261 – 262 provision for nil 259 measure of 235 misrepresentation 60 , 61 , 62 – 63 , 123 negligent misstatement 64 nuisance 318 punitive 60 , 235 reasonable cost of remedial works 244 – 247 reasonableness 247 – 249 site possession: employer responsibility 126 tort vs contract 249 – 254 trespass 323 Deceit 63 Defective Premises Act 1972 text 567 – 571 Defences 141 force majeure 141 – 149 , 181 frustration 141 , 144 – 145 , 149 – 153 mistake vs impossibility vs 70 – 73 impracticability or impossibility of performance 70 – 71 , 145 – 146 FIDIC Forms of Contract 181 misrepresentation see separate entry mistake see separate entry Rylands v Fletcher 321 Delay by certifier in issuing interim certificates 212 – 214 by subcontractors 129 – 131 concurrent 269 – 271 , 333 disruption vs 263 repudiatory breach: substantial 190 see also Extension of time (EOT) clauses Design professionals 75 – 110 architect/engineer’s duty: tort vs contract 77 – 78 concurrent negligence and contract duty 83 – 88 assumptions, design 93 – 94 continuing duty 89 – 92 expert evidence 88 negligence generally 83 – 96 new or cutting edge 89 pro-active duty to review design 89 , 90 , 93 – 94 remoteness test 87 – 88 temporary works 94 – 96 delegation of design responsibilities 109 – 110 duty to others 100 fitness for purpose liability 76 – 77 , 78 – 80 , 81 – 83 , 108 , 156 , 163 , 164 , 173 – 174 , 180 knowledge of others 106 – 107 latent defects, subsequent occupiers and personal injury 102 – 103 matters other than design 107 NEC3 173 – 174 new, novel and strict design standards 89 , 107 – 108 others, liability for design of 109 – 110 physical damage/personal injury 100 , 102 – 103 purely economic losses 77 – 78 , 83 – 87 , 95 – 96 , 97 , 100 – 102 , 105 – 106 employer and sub-consultant 104 tests for imposition of duty of care 101 – 102 reasonable skill and care 79 , 80 – 83 , 108 , 156 , 164 , 173 – 174 Page 666 retrospective danger, duty to warn of 96 – 100 subsequent occupiers, latent defects and personal injury 102 – 103 Design-build form contracts 156 – 175 contractor to scrutinise employer’s requirements for errors 158 extension of time (EOT) clauses 159 sweeping-up 160 JCT forms of contract see separate entry Development banks Disputes Boards 377 – 378 Diminution in value claims 246 – 247 , 271 – 279 Disclosure arbitration 395 – 397 e-disclosure 397 – 402 variations 231 Dispute meaning of 360 – 362 Dispute Boards 17 , 372 – 385 Adjudication Boards 372 , 373 , 375 – 376 , 377 Agreement 387 enforcement of decisions in interim period before arbitral award 419 – 434 interim-binding decisions 373 , 375 – 376 notice of dissatisfaction 418 – 419 , 429 Sharia –Islamic law 15 , 17 advent in England of 26 – 27 advisory opinions 382 appointment 379 – 380 early 380 – 381 arbitration 17 , 418 , 419 available at short notice 382 costs 383 enforcement of DAB decisions in interim period before arbitral award 419 – 434 new developments 419 – 424 Persero No 1 428 – 430 Persero No 2 428 , 430 – 434 recent developments 424 – 427 growth of 378 – 379 history of 376 – 377 informal operations 382 international aspects 385 interpretation of contract 382 membership 379 – 380 nature of 372 – 374 overview 379 procedures 382 – 384 reasons for success 383 – 385 Review Boards 372 , 373 – 375 , 377 non-binding recommendations 373 , 374 – 375 Sharia –Islamic law 14 – 15 , 17 routine operations 381 – 382 Sharia – Islamic law 10 , 13 , 14 – 15 , 16 , 17 site visits, regular 380 – 381 , 385 unique 374 Dispute resolution 343 – 385 adjudication see separate entry arbitration see separate entry conciliation see separate entry conventional model 343 Disputes Boards see separate entry engineer as quasi-arbitrator 21 – 24 engineer/arbitrator as judge 19 – 21 historical development of 17 – 19 JCT: changes made in SBC05 168 mediation see separate entry NEC3 172 NEC4 174 overview of forms of 343 – 345 Sharia – Islamic law 10 – 13 Disruption claims: delay vs 263 Due diligence 263 E-disclosure arbitration 397 – 402 CIArb Protocol 400 – 402 Economic duress 47 , 199 Economic loss negligence 77 – 78 , 83 – 87 , 95 – 96 , 97 , 100 – 102 , 104 , 105 – 106 , 283 , 291 – 305 Election serial adjudication decisions 407 – 416 Encroachment 323 Engineer as quasi-arbitrator 21 – 24 Engineer/arbitrator as judge 19 – 21 Estoppel 46 issue 406 – 407 promissory 200 – 202 Executive Tribunal 345 Expert determination 344 – 345 Extension of time (EOT) clauses 159 claims 264 – 265 concurrent delay 269 – 271 standard forms 265 – 266 who determines extension 266 – 267 ICE conditions of contract 169 , 170 sweeping-up 160 Page 667 Fairness and/or fair dealing 56 – 57 , 59 certification 214 – 215 , 217 FIDIC Forms of Contract 34 , 175 – 185 , 358 access to and possession of site 117 applicable law 1 certification 204 , 214 common issues between forms contractor incentives 178 cost 181 engineer, role of 177 – 178 FIDIC 2017 edition changes 182 – 183 obligations of contractors 180 – 181 rights of contractors 179 termination issues 181 variations 178 – 179 , 217 – 218 damages: claims by contractor 184 – 185 employer 184 Dispute Boards 376 – 378 , 379 , 382 – 383 , 418 Agreement 387 notice of dissatisfaction 418 – 419 extension of time for completion 265 force majeure 141 – 142 , 143 , 144 , 146 , 181 Gold Book 34 , 175 , 177 , 185 , 430 time-bar 335 – 336 Green Book 156 , 175 proper form contractor design of project 176 contractor designs, procures and builds 176 contractor designs, procures, builds and operates 177 employer design of project 176 Red Book 34 , 36 , 146 , 155 , 175 – 176 , 180 , 184 , 377 , 420 – 430 contractor incentives 178 engineer 177 , 178 EOT clause 159 fitness for purpose 157 ground conditions 119 – 120 impossibility 181 interim payment certificates 204 risk allocation 177 termination 181 , 191 – 192 text 475 – 485 , 487 – 497 time-bar 334 , 335 , 337 , 342 unforeseen conditions 183 variations 178 , 179 , 217 – 218 Silver Book 34 , 175 – 176 , 181 , 183 , 184 , 377 contractor incentives 178 engineer 177 – 178 fitness for purpose 157 , 180 ground conditions 120 impossibility 181 risk allocation 177 text 521 – 540 time-bar 342 unforeseen conditions 183 variations 178 – 179 time limits 418 , 419 84 days 143 , 146 , 182 , 342 , 418 , 422 time-barred claims 334 , 335 – 336 , 337 , 339 , 341 , 342 Yellow Book 34 , 156 , 175 – 176 , 181 , 184 , 377 contractor incentives 178 contractor to scrutinise employer’s requirements for errors 158 engineer 177 , 178 fitness for purpose 156 – 157 , 180 ground conditions 119 , 120 impossibility 181 risk allocation 177 text 499 – 519 time-bar 342 unforeseen conditions 183 variations 178 – 179 Final Account Statements 232 – 234 Fixed price contract 38 Float 267 – 268 Force majeure 141 – 149 Acts of God and 144 burden of proof 144 commencement 147 duration of condition 148#  effect of 149 FIDIC Forms of Contract 141 – 142 , 143 , 144 , 146 , 181 frustration and 144 – 145 mitigation of losses 144 , 148 necessary requirements for 147 notice of event 148 – 149 purpose of clauses 145 – 146 termination of contract 143 – 144 typical usage 146 – 147 Formation of contract 41 – 50 capacity 44 consideration 44 – 47 defining contract 41 – 42 implied agreements 44 intent to be legally bound 47 – 48 invitation to treat 42 – 43 Page 668 letters of intent 50 offer and acceptance 42 – 44 , 52 , 54 oral contracts 49 – 50 privity of contract 48 – 49 unilateral contract 43 – 44 , 57 France force majeure 141 , 144 non-statutory adjudication 31 – 33 Frustration 141 , 144 – 145 , 149 – 153 mistake vs impossibility vs 70 – 73 Germany non-statutory adjudication 30 – 31 Glossary of construction terms 435 – 450 Good faith 22 , 30 , 31 , 59 , 185 , 355 , 426 Government forms of contract 34 Guaranteed maximum price contract 38 Hanafi Islamic Sharia 10 , 11 – 13 Hanbali Islamic Sharia 11 – 13 , 14 High-low arbitration 344 , 350 Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act 1996 text 451 – 458 Human rights private and family life 317 , 318 ICE conditions of contract 34 , 155 , 156 , 168 – 170 conciliation 345 Disputes Boards 378 , 382 – 383 ground conditions 120 – 121 Measurement Version 7th Edition 168 reasonable care and skill 157 time and cost issues 169 – 170 Implied agreements 44 Impracticability or impossibility of performance 70 – 71 , 145 – 146 FIDIC Forms of Contract 144 , 181 Injunctions adjudication HGCRA 1996 368 damages in lieu 255 encroachment 323 licence to enter site 113 – 115 trespass 113 – 114 , 323 Innominate terms 59 Insolvency employer insolvency and payments to subcontractors 128 – 129 unfair preference 129 Intent to be legally bound 47 – 48 Interest arbitrator 349 – 350 Sharia – Islamic law 15 International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) 17 , 374 , 378 , 387 Combined Dispute Board 373 Dispute Board Rules: text 541 – 555 Invitation to treat 42 – 43 Islamic law see Sharia – Islamic law Issue estoppel 406 – 407 JCT forms of contract 34 , 155 , 156 , 160 – 168 changes between 2016 and 2011 editions 164 – 165 insurance 166 payment 165 – 166 changes made in SBC05 162 – 164 , 165 commencement, progress and completion 166 – 167 design 163 – 164 dispute resolution 168 fit for purpose 163 , 164 insurance 166 nominated subcontractors 162 – 163 reasonable skill and care 164 termination 167 warranties/third-party rights 167 condition precedent 342 extension of time 159 force majeure 141 JCT 98 SFBC 162 list of 160 – 162 nominated subcontractors 127 , 162 – 163 reasonable care and skill 157 , 164 third-party rights 285 Joint ventures 374 Judicial appraisal 344 Jurisprudence constante 5 – 6 Latent Damage Act 1986 text 655 – 659 Latent defects, subsequent occupiers and personal injury 102 – 103 Letters of intent 50 Licence to enter site contractor 112 – 116 Limitations Act 1980 text 609 – 635 Liquidated damages 159 , 235 , 256 – 263 , 329 – 334 , 336 – 337 , 341 commercial justification 261 – 262 delay claims and 263 exclusive remedy 261 Page 669 float 267 – 268 force majeure 143 genuine pre-estimate of loss 257 , 261 – 262 ICE conditions of contract 169 , 170 new test 262 – 263 penalty 257 – 259 , 261 – 262 provision for nil 259 Litigation arbitration vs mediation vs 345 – 346 JCT: changes made in SBC05 168 Loan agreements Disputes Boards 380 Maliki Islamic Sharia 11 – 13 Mediation 345 after notice of dissatisfaction 419 agreements 387 arbitration 345 , 350 enforceability of ADR agreements and mediation settlement agreements 355 – 356 JCT: changes made in SBC05 168 litigation vs arbitration vs 345 – 346 refusing 351 – 355 no cost consequences 356 – 357 Sharia – Islamic law 13 withdrawing from 356 Methods of construction contracting 35 – 36 construction manager 37 design-build 36 , 75 management contracting 37 other 37 traditional 36 Misrepresentation 59 – 65 by words or conduct 60 distinctions 61 – 62 express false representations 62 – 63 fraud in the factum 60 fraud in the inducement 60 HGCRA 1996 363 implied 63 innocent 64 misstatements of law vs fact 64 – 65 negligent 64 non-disclosure 63 site conditions 123 – 124 true but stops being true 62 Mistake 65 common 68 – 70 frustration vs impossibility vs 70 – 73 HGCRA 1996 adjudication correcting decision 366 – 367 , 371 mutual 67 – 68 unilateral 65 – 67 Natural justice 113 – 114 certifier 206 , 214 , 215 , 217 enforcement of foreign awards 406 HGCRA 1996 adjudication 366 , 367 , 415 , 416 NEC 170 , 176 early warning provisions 159 , 172 , 174 NEC3 155 , 170 – 171 adjudication 172 capping contractor liability 172 clarifications 171 – 172 design liability 173 – 174 Key Dates 173 overview 171 payment for defective work 174 Prevention Clause 19 173 risk register 172 – 173 time-bar 334 – 335 , 336 , 337 , 339 , 342 NEC4 170 – 171 overview 174 – 175 time-bar 335 Negligence 291 – 316 causation 236 – 241 certifier 208 – 210 design professionals 88 – 96 , 100 , 156 concurrent negligence and contract duty 83 – 88 duty: tort vs contract 77 – 78 economic losses 77 – 78 , 83 – 87 , 95 – 96 , 97 , 100 – 102 , 104 , 105 – 106 personal injury/physical damage, latent defects and subsequent occupiers 102 – 103 retrospective danger, duty to warn of 97 – 98 , 100 duty of care tests 305 , 310 assumption of responsibility 307 – 308 holistic 309 incremental 309 threefold 305 – 307 economic loss 77 – 78 , 83 – 87 , 95 – 96 , 97 , 100 – 102 , 104 , 105 – 106 , 283 , 291 – 305 Australia 304 Canada 301 – 304 Malaysia 304 New Zealand 304 , 305 Singapore 304 HGCRA 1996 363 subcontractors Page 670 defect issues 131 duty of care towards employer 137 – 138 Negligent misrepresentation 64 Negligent misstatement 64 , 209 – 210 certifier 209 – 210 economic losses 78 , 84 , 86 , 87 , 106 Nemo sua judex in sua causa 21 Net contribution clauses 283 , 285 Neutral Fact-Finder 345 Non-contract liability see Tort Notice of dissatisfaction Dispute Adjudication Board 418 – 419 , 429 Nuisance 316 – 319 foreseeable damage 319 , 320 limiting factors 318 – 319 private 316 , 317 public 316 – 317 statutory 318 strict liability in nuisance: rule in Rylands v Fletcher 319 – 322 trespass vs 322 – 323 unreasonableness 319 Obiter dictum 5 Offer and acceptance 42 – 44 , 52 , 54 Oral contracts 49 – 50 adjudication: HGCRA 1996 363 – 365 , 370 Pacta sunt servanda 21 , 41 – 42 Payment formats cost reimbursement or cost plus fee contract 39 guaranteed maximum price contract 38 remeasurement type of contract 38 – 39 target cost contract 39 traditional lump sum or fixed price contract 38 Payment(s) FIDIC Forms of Contract 179 ICE: Measurement Version 169 – 170 notices 371 withholding 371 – 372 prohibited conditional 371 suspension of performance for non-payment 372 termination of contract for non 188 – 189 to subcontractors and employer insolvency 128 – 129 see also Certification Personal data protection 398 Personal injury, latent defects and subsequent occupiers 102 – 103 Precedent 2 – 6 binding 2 , 5 , 9 persuasive 2 , 5 Prevention principle 184 – 185 , 271 , 325 , 327 , 331 , 337 , 340 – 342 meaning of 184 Privity of contract 48 – 49 , 283 , 285 subcontractors 137 Professional indemnity insurance reasonable skill and care 79 Promissory estoppel 200 – 202 Quantum meruit 44 , 55 , 118 , 134 , 218 , 227 Quasi-contract 44 Ratio decidendi 5 Rectification mistake 68 Release discharge of contract 197 – 199 Remeasurement type of contract 38 – 39 Repudiation anticipatory 194 – 195 contractual termination vs common law 187 – 192 defective work 189 – 190 delay, substantial 189 – 190 employer fails to give possession of site 189 employer’s failure to pay on time 188 – 189 need not be accepted 195 – 197 unjustified walking off job 189 wrongful suspension 192 – 194 Rescission 197 misrepresentation 60 , 62 – 63 , 64 RIBA Architect’s Appointment 81 , 109 Rylands v Fletcher 319 – 322 defences 321 Sale of Goods Act 1979 text 589 – 607 Scheme for Construction Contracts (England and Wales) Regulations 1998 text 459 – 468 Set-off abatement vs 279 – 281 serial adjudication decisions 416 – 418 Severability clauses 58 Shafi Islamic Sharia 10 – 13 Sharia – Islamic law 9 – 17 Page 671 doctrinal schools of 10 – 13 enforcement of ADR decisions 13 – 14 adjudication decisions vs arbitration awards 14 – 17 Dispute Boards 14 – 15 , 16 , 17 history 9 – 10 Ijtihad 10 Iran 13 , 14 , 17 Saudi Arabia 13 – 17 sources 10 Site 111 access after completion 117 – 118 access denied: anticipatory repudiation 196 access, right to 111 conditions 118 contract provisions for unexpected ground 121 – 123 misrepresentation of site 123 – 124 unforeseen ground 118 – 121 HGCRA 1996: definition of 124 – 126 licence to enter 112 – 116 possession by whom 112 employer responsibility regarding 126 (non-)exclusive 117 repudiatory breach: employer failure to give 189 wrongfully excluded by unrelated third parties 116 Specific performance 45 , 73 , 115 , 255 – 256 , 287 Standard construction contracts methods of construction contracting 35 – 36 construction manager 37 design-build 36 , 75 management contracting 37 other 37 traditional 36 operation and payments formats 38 – 39 standard form 33 – 35 Standard form contracts 33 – 34 , 155 – 156 provisions 35 , 109 adjudication 358 custom-drafted 35 extensions of time 326 ‘short form’ 155 – 156 use of 35 , 155 see also individual standard forms Stare decisis 2 – 6 , 9 Strict liability 80 fitness for purpose 76 – 77 vicarious liability 310 Subcontractor 127 – 139 default by defect issues 131 – 133 delay issues 129 – 131 employer insolvency and payments 128 – 129 NEC3: definition of 171 nominated 127 problems with 133 – 137 relations with architects and engineers 139 relations with contractor 128 relations with employer no privity 137 third parties: 1999 Act 137 tort liability 137 – 138 types of subcontract 127 Subject to Contract 52 Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982 text 637 – 653 Target cost contract 39 Tenders 54 – 57 Termination of contract anticipatory repudiation 194 – 195 common law repudiation vs contractual 187 – 192 FIDIC Forms of Contract 181 , 182 – 183 force majeure 143 – 144 , 146 , 148 , 181 repudiation need not be accepted 195 – 197 repudiatory breach 187 , 188 defective work 189 – 190 delay, substantial 190 employer fails to give possession of site 189 employer’s failure to pay on time 188 – 189 unjustified walking off job 189 wrongful suspension 192 – 194 Time at large 159 , 325 – 334 , 336 , 337 potential shift in approach 334 prevention principle 325 , 327 , 331 , 337 , 340 – 342 Time of the essence 72 , 151 , 190 , 325 – 326 , 328 Time-barred claims 334 – 342 FIDIC 336 , 339 , 341 , 342 Gold Book 335 – 336 Red Book 334 , 335 , 337 , 342 NEC3 334 – 335 , 336 , 337 , 339 , 342 NEC4 335 United States 337 – 339 Page 672 Tort 235 , 236 deceit 63 design professionals concurrent negligence and contract duty 83 – 88 duty: contract vs tort 77 – 78 economic losses 77 – 78 , 83 – 87 , 95 – 96 , 97 , 100 – 102 , 104 , 105 – 106 retrospective danger, duty to warn of 97 – 98 , 100 subsequent occupiers or owners 102 – 103 , 105 – 106 negligence 283 , 291 – 316 , 363 causation 239 , 240 , 241 contract vs tort damages 249 – 254 contributory 239 design professionals see above duty of care tests 305 – 310 subcontractors 131 , 137 – 138 negligent misstatement see separate entry nuisance see separate entry Rylands v Fletcher 319 – 322 subcontractors 137 – 138 no privity 137 trespass 322 – 323 vicarious liability 310 – 316 Torts (Interference with Goods) Act 1977 text 581 – 588 Traditional lump sum or fixed price contract 38 Trespass 322 – 323 contractor’s licence to enter site 113 encroachment 323 Unconscionability 67 , 234 , 255 , 257 , 258 – 259 , 262 , 333 Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 text 573 – 579 Unilateral contracts 43 – 44 , 57 Unjust enrichment 44 Value diminution in 246 – 247 , 271 – 279 Variations 217 – 231 basis for payment and value of 226 – 228 errors 231 failure to order 223 – 224 FIDIC Forms of Contract 178 – 179 , 217 – 218 final certificates 231 implied 222 ordering 222 – 223 removing work 224 – 226 separate contract or 218 – 222 standard methods of measurement 230 – 231 value 228 – 230 Vicarious liability 310 – 316 burden of proof 311 control 310 , 311 , 313 – 315 dual 311 – 316 strict 310 two-stage test 316 Waiver 200 – 202 Warranties collateral see separate entry World Bank Dispute Boards 377 – 378 , 379 , 382 – 383

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