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MARITIME STATUTES

International Law of the Shipmaster

MARITIME STATUTES MARITIME STATUTES Afghanistan Afghanistan has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Albania Law 9,251 of 8 Jul 2004 (Maritime Code). Law 9,281 of 23 Sep 2004. Algeria Code of Maritime Commerce. Ordonnance 80 of 23 Oct 1976. Modified by Loi 5 of 25 Jun 1998. Décret Exécutif 232 of 18 Jul 1998. Andorra Andorra has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Angola Lei 9 of 19 Apr 1996 (maritime jurisdiction); Decreto 26 of 6 Jun 1997. There is no material difference between the Angola shipping law and the Portuguese law. See Portugal. Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda Merchant Shipping Act, 2006. Argentina Ley de la Navegacion. Ley 20,094 of 15 Jan 1973. Ley 19,170 of 12 Aug 1971 (ship registry and mortgage of vessels). Armenia Armenia has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Australia Navigation Act, 1912. Austria Unternehmensgesetzbuch Commercial Code, 2005. Book IV, sections 343–908 (includes transport and maritime transportation). Law of 17 Jul 1957 (Austrian nationality of ships). Azerbaijan The Merchant Marine Code of Azerbaijan Republic (2001), Water Code of Azerbaijan Republic (No. 685, March 13, 1998), the Civil Code of Azerbaijan Republic. Bahamas Merchant Shipping Act. Chapter 246, Amended by Acts 17 of 1989, 7 of 1990 and 18 of 1995. Regulations of 1976 (some UK regulations are still in force). Amended further by Carriage of Goods by Sea Act. Chapter 304 Statute Laws of the Bahamas. Merchant Shipping (oil pollution) Act. Chapter 253 Statute Laws of the Bahamas. Bahrain Legislative Decree 23 of 1982, amended by Laws 4 and 18 of 1991. Bangladesh Merchant Shipping Ordinance XXVI, 1983. Barbados Act 15 of 1994 (shipping). Chapter 296. Chapter 90A (not in CARICOM). Act 16 of 1994 (shipping, i.e., oil pollution). Act 14 of 1996 (shipping, i.e., corporations). Act 15 of 1994 (shipping). Marine Insurance Act 12 of 1979. Chapter 292. Caribbean Shipping Agreement Act. Chapter 16. L.R.O. 1998, CAP. 296 B or Shipping Act. Belarus Law 321-Z of 15 Nov 1999 (maritime code). Law 18-Z of 24 Jun 2002 (water transport and internal shipping). Belgium Commercial Code, Book IL Loi of 15 May 2006 (transportation). Loi of 9 Apr 2007 (wrecks, debris and treasure trove of wrecks at sea). Belize Laws of Belize, Ch. 248 (2000)(revised); Merchant Shipping Act (UK); Act 32, Registration of Merchant Ships (1989); Laws of Belize, Ch. 236 (2000)(revised); Harbours and Merchant Shipping Act; Laws of Belize, Ch. 234 (2000)(revised); Belize Port Authority Act of 1989, as amended (permitting private ports); Laws of Belize Ch. 233(2000)(revised); Belize Port Authority Act (2000). Benin Code de Commerce Maritime. Ordonnance 38-PR/MTPTPT of 18 Jun 1968. Modified by Ordonnance 74 of 14 Dec 1974. Ordonnance 49 of 1979 (merchant shipping) and Décret 240 of 13 Sep 1979. Bhutan Bhutan has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Bolivia Decreto Supremo 26,256 of 20 Jul 2001 (registration of Bolivian flag vessels in international waters). Bosnia-Herzegovina Law on Maritime Navigation and Domestic Navigation in the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina, 2005. Botswana Botswana has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Brazil C. Co., pt. 2, §§ 457–796, D.O. Comercio Maritimo; Lei No. 9,611, de 19 Fev. 1998 de D.O. de 20.02.1998 (Multimodal Transport of Freight and Related Matters), Decreto No. 3,411, de 12 Abr. 2000, D.O. de 13.04.2000. Brunei Merchant Shipping Act, Chapter 145. Admiralty Jurisdiction Act 26 of 1996. Bulgaria Kodeks na Turgovskoto Moreplavane (Commercial Shipping Code) of 24 Jun 1970, amended 1990. Burkina Faso Commercial Code, Bk. 2, sec. 190–436. Burundi Burundi has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Cambodia Sub-decree no. 14 of 3rd March 1989; Declaration No. 189 of 05th April 1999; Ministry Instruction No. 006 of 01st October 1999; Memo No. 007 of 18th April 2001; Declaration No. 222 of 19th July 2002; Preah Reachkrom no. 901 NS and 902 NS dated on 13th September 1954, no. 403 BR on 04 October 1969. Cameroon Commercial Code, sec. 190–436. Loi 21 of 24 Dec 1998; Code de la Marine Marchande UDEAC, 22 Dec. 1994. (Union Douanière et Economique de l’Afrique Centrale). Canada Canada Shipping Act, ch. 26, 2001 S.C. 49/50 Elizabeth (Can.); Act of, ch. 41, 1977–1978 S.C. (Can.); Admiralty Act, (1934) (Can.); Shipping Conferences Exemption Act, ch. 22, 1987 S.C. (Can.); Canadian Laws Offshore Applications Act, ch.44, 1990 S.C. (Can.); Carriage of Goods by Water Act, ch. 21, 1993 S.C. (Can.); Coasting Trade Act, ch. 31, 1992 S.C. (Can.); Canada Marine Act, ch. 10, (1998) (Ports and Harbors); Transportation Appeal Tribunal of Canada Act, ch. 29, 2001 S.C. (Can.). Cape Verde Islands There is no material difference between the Cape Verde law and the Portuguese law. See Portugal. Central African Republic Code de la Marine Marchande UDEAC, 22 Dec. 1994. Chad Code de la Marine Marchande UDEAC, 22 Dec. 1994. Chile Ley 18,680 of 22 Dec 1987. Ley de navegacion. Decreto ley 2,222 of 21 May 1978. Modified by regulations contained in Ley 18,680 of 22 Dec 1987. China Maritime Code of the People’s Republic of China, State Council order 335 of 11 Dec 2001 (regulations on international maritime transport); Maritime Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China, Law of 25 Dec 1999; State Council decree 494 of 28 Mar 2007; People’s Republic of China decree (port law) of 28 Jun 2003. China, Republic of Taiwan Maritime Act (Maritime Code), promulgated 30 Dec 1929, amended 14 Aug 1999; Law of Ships, promulgated 1 Jul 1931, amended 30 Jan 2002. Seafarer Law promulgat ed 30 Jan 2002. Colombia Commercial Code, sections 1,426–1,772. Comoros Statute No. 69–8 of January 3, 1969. Art. 10 of the Decree No. 69–679 of June 19, 1969. Statute No. 67–5 of January 2, 1967. Decrees No. 67–967 and No. 68–845 of September 24, 1968. Democratic Republic of Congo Code Maritime. Lois 97 and 98 of 4 Mar 1966, Ordonnance 256 of 1980 and 192 of 1982 (merchant shipping) and Décret 1 of 17 Jan 1983, Ordonnance loi 97 of 14 Mar 1966 (Maritime Insurance Code, also covering interior waterways) 1 Feb 1970. Code de la Navigation Fluviale et Lacustre, Ordonnance loi 96 of 14 Mar 1996. Code de la Marine Marchande UDEAC, 22 Dec. 1994. Congo (Zaire) Code Maritime. Lois 97 and 98 of 4 Mar 1966. Ordonnance 256 of 1980 and 192 of 1982 (merchant shipping) and Décret 1 of 17 Jan 1983. Ordonnance loi 97 of 14 Mar 1966 (maritime insurance code, also covering interior waterways). Code de la Navigation Fluviale et Lacustre. Ordonnance loi 96 of 14 Mar 1996. Loi 26 of 2 Dec 1974 (Compagnie Maritime Congolaise (Zaïrois)) and Ordonnance 204 of 5 May 1978 (Statut de la Compagnie). All laws and regulations dealing with commercial transport and safety of persons and passengers in consolidated texts under “Transport des Personnes” in Codes larcier 2003 vol. 3:1. Cook Islands Shipping Act, 1998. Costa Rica Ley 104 of 6 Jun 1853. Codified as Law of Maritime Commerce in the revoked Commercial Code, but retained in force as part of current Commercial Code, 1964. Côte d’Ivoire Commercial Code, sec. 190–436; Loi 349 of 9 Nov 1961 (Code de la Marine Marchand, 22 Nov 1961); Merchant Shipping Act. Loi 940 of 26 Dec 1985. Croatia The Maritime Code of 8 Dec 2004. Law of 30 Jan 1998 (ships and shipping). Cuba Commercial Code, Book 3, Del Comercio Maritimo, sections 573–869. Decreto 87 of 21 May 1981 (contracts for transport of cargo). Decreto 88 of 21 May 1981 (special conditions governing operations of means of transport). Cyprus Episemos Ephemeris Episemos Ephemeris, 3,419, Law of July 14, 2000 (Merchant Shipping Code); Law 45 of 1963 (Merchant Shipping-Registration of Ships Sales and Mortgages) (amended 1982 and 1987); Episemos Ephemeris, 1992, 729, Act of May 29, 1992 (Merchant Shipping Fees and Taxation Rules); Cyprus Admiralty Jurisdiction Order of 1893; Law 38 of 1973 (Cyprus Ports Authority); Carriage of Goods by Sea Law; Statute Laws of Cyprus, Ch. 263; Brussels Arrest of Ships Convention, 1976; Brussels Immunity of Ships Convention, July 19, 1988; U. N. Convention on the Law of the Sea, Dec. 12, 1988. Czech Republic Act 61 of 29 Oct 1952. Law of 24 Feb 2000 (sea transport). Law of 25 May 1995 (inland navigations and waterways). Denmark Sølov (Merchant Shipping). Lov 170 of 16 Mar 1994 (maritime code conforming to the general Scandinavian maritime code). Last amended by Lov 228 of 21 Apr 1999. Note: The maritime code incorporates the 1927 law on ship registry). Dansk Internationalt skibsregister (registration of ships). Lov 408 of 1 Jul 1988. Consolidated in Lovbekendtgorelse 273 of 11 April 1997. Somandslov (seamen). Lov 420 of 13 Jun 1973. Consolidated text in Lovbekendtgorelse 766 of 19 Sep 1995. Last amended by Lov 1,088 of 29 Dec 1999. Lov 236 of 28 May 1999 om Havne (harbors). Djibouti Djibouti has various no law. Dominica United Kingdom Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, extended to Dominica by Act 42 of 1975. Merchant Shipping Liability (liability of ship owners, etc.) Act of 1958 (UK). Extended to Dominica by statutory instruments 1963 no. 1,632. Registration of Ships Act, Chapter 48:01; Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, Chapter 48:02, International Maritime Act 9 of 2000, amended by no. 12 of 2001. Bills of Lading Act, Chapter 78:33. Admiralty Jurisdiction (Dominica) Order in UK Statutory Instruments 1964, no. 1,660. Dominican Republic Commercial Code, sections 190–436. Ecuador Commercial Code, 1992 § 724–1,011. Egypt Law 8 of 1990 (Maritime Commerce Code). Law 232 of 1989 (safety of ships); Law 163 of 2000. El Salvador Decreto legislativo 994 of 1 Oct 2002 (General Maritime Code, including ports and administration of ports). Equatorial Guinea Code de la Marine Marchande UDEAC, 22 Dec 1994. Eritrea Proclamation 7 of 1991 (Transitional Maritime Code of Eritrea). There is no material difference between the Eretrian law and Ethiopian law. See Ethiopia. Estonia Laeva ashaôigusseadus. Law of 11 Mar 1998 (ship’s property, mortgage and pledge). Amends the Merchant Shipping Code. Law of 17 Dec 1997 (maritime safety). Law of 11 Feb 1998 (ship’s flags and registers of ships). Amends the Merchant Shipping Code. Law of 26 Jan 2000 (public transport, all aspects connected with carriage of passengers). The Merchant Shipping Code of Estonia, 1991 amended 1 February 1995, Merchant Shipping Act, 2002. Seafarers Act, 2001. Ethiopia Code of Maritime Navigation of 5 May 1960. Fiji Marine Act of 1986, as amended Masters & Seamen Act of 2006 as amended. Finland Finnish Maritime Code (674/1994, amended 924/1998). France Loi 420 of 18 Jim 1966 and Décret 1,078 of 31 Dec 1966 sur les contrats d’affrètement et de transport maritime, etc. Commercial Code, e.g., Loi 5 of 3 Jan 1967 (nationality of vessels and maritime liens). Implemented by Décret 967 of 27 Oct 1967. Loi 545 of 7 Jul 1967 (events at sea, e.g., collision, salvage, general average). Implemented by Décret 65 of 19 Jan 1968. Loi 522 of 3 Jul 1967 (maritime insurance). Implemented by Décret 64 of 19 Jan 1968. [Code des Voies Navigables et de la Navigation Intérieure] of 1941 (inland and domestic water navigation). Amended by Loi 576 of 12 Jul 1994. Compiled, with other relevant legislation, as Code du Domaine Public Fluviale et de la Navigation intérieure. Loi 340 of 28 Feb 1948 Portant Organisation de la Marine Marchand. Title II, Chapter IV of the Merchant Marine Disciplinary and Penal Code Act of December 1926 as amended. Gabon Code Maritime. Loi of 12 Jan 1963. Ordonnance 4 of 18 Feb 1992 (maritime traffic and external commerce). Code de la Marine Marchande, UDEAC (Union Douanière et Economique de l’Afrique Centrale). Gambia Merchant Shipping Act, 1996. Georgia The Maritime Code of Georgia, 1997. Germany General maritime law contained in Book 5 (Seehandel) of the Commercial Code, sections 476–905.Gesetz iiber Rechte an Eingetragenen Schiffen of 15 Nov 1940 Reichsgesetzblatt I pg. 1,499, amended 28 Aug 1969. Guterkraft Verkehrsgesetz (goods shipment) of 17 Oct 1952. Ghana Act 183 of 1963 (merchant shipping). Ghana Maritime Authority Act 630 of 2002. Ghana maritime security Act 675 of 2004. Ghana Port and Harbour Authority law of 1986. Greece Kodix idiotikou Nautikou Dikaiou. Act 3,816 of 28 Feb 1958. Amended by Law 2,107 of 1992. Law 95 of 1979 (maritime companies). Grenada Shipping Act 47 of 1994. Chapter 303 in the Revised laws; Maritime Conventions Act of 1911 (UK). Guatemala Decreto Gubernativo 2,946 (Commercial Code of 1940, of which “Libro III Comercio maritimo” only, remains in force). Guinea Loi L/95/23 CTRN of 12 Jun 1995 (Code de la Marine Marchand). Guinea-Bissau There is no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Guyana Guyana Shipping Act of 1998. Haiti Commercial Code, sec. 230–476. Décrets of 22 Dec 1944 and 4 Jan 1965 and Loi of 6 Aug 1964. Honduras Acuerdo 764 of 29 Jul 1997 (regulating maritime transportation). Ley Orgânica de la Marina Mercante Nacional. Decreto 167 of 15 Nov 1994. Repeals the 1943 law (National Merchant Marine). Also, Código de comercio de 1940, Libro 2: “Del Comercio Maritimo,” sections 733–1,038. Kept in force after passage of 1949 Commercial Code. Ley Orgânica De La Marina Mercante Nacional, Decreto No. 163–1994, 2 January 1995. Código Del Trabajo, Decree No. 189, 15 July 1959. Hong Kong Merchant Shipping Ordinance, (2008) Cap. 81, 84, 281, 313, 329, 369, 413–415, 434, 462, 478, 482, 506, 508, 548, 582, (H.K.). Hungary Act XLII of 2 Jun 2000. Iceland Law 66 of 1963 (shipping). Act 47 of 2003 (ship survey, regulations governing foreign ships in Icelandic ports or waters). India Merchant Shipping Act 44 of 1958. Last amended by no. 13 of 1987. Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 26 of 1925. Multimodal Transportation of Goods Act of 1993. Indonesia Law 21 of 17 Sep 1992 (maritime transportation). Iran Maritime law of 1964. Mehr, 1343 (Maritime Code) October, 1964. Iraq Code of Maritime Commerce of 1942 is the Ottoman Law of Maritime Commerce of 1863. It is difficult to determine either its validity, modern utility or enforceability because of the paucity and remoteness in time of it and its changes and amendments. Code of Maritime Commerce of 1942; Law 80 of 1983 (carriage), directives 1983—85; Law 27 of 1995 (ports) in Gazette 10 Apr 1996. Ireland Merchant Shipping Act of 1947. Merchant shipping (liability of ship owners and others) Act of 1996. Maritime jurisdiction Act of 1959. Jurisdiction of courts (maritime conventions) Act of 1989. UK Merchant Shipping Act of 1894. Israel Law of 5720–1960 (shipping vessels), Colonial courts of admiralty Act of 1890 (UK), Palestine admiralty jurisdiction order of 1937. Italy Codice della Navigazione of 30 Mar 1942. Amended by Legge 359 of 14 Aug 1974. Jamaica Act of 1998 (shipping). Amendment 15 of 2000. British Caribbean Shipping (agreement) Law 6 of 1955. Japan Law 187 of 1949 (marine transportation). Commercial Code, sections 684–851 (maritime commerce). Law 69 of 1992 (international carriage of goods by sea). Law 136 of 25 Dec 1970 (marine pollution prevention). Jordan Code of Maritime Commerce, Law 12 of 1972. Kazakhstan Law 574 of 6 Jul 2004 (inland water transport). Law 284–11 of 17 Jan 2002 (maritime transport). Kenya Act No. 4 of 2009 Merchant Shipping Act. Kiribati Kiribati Shipping Act, 2006; The Harbours Ordinance, Chapt. 40 and The Wreck and Salvage Ordinance, Chapt. 103, The Laws of Kiribati, 1977. Korea Commercial Code, sections 638–759 (maritime commerce). Maritime Transportation Business Act (also styled marine transport Act), amended by Law 3,716 of 31 Dec 1983. Law 1,941 of 30 Mar 1967 (harbors), as amended by Law 4,925 of 5 Jan 1995. Act 1,404 of 19 Sep 1963 (harbour transport business). Law 3,037 of 31 Dec 1977 (territorial seas) and Enforcement decree. Presidential decree 9,162 of 20 Sep 1978. Seamen Act, amended by Act 3,751 of 7 Aug 1984. Act 2,306 of 22 Jan 1971 (investigation of and inquiry into marine accidents). Democratic People’s Republic of Korea The maritime laws are not readily and publicly available and if they were, their validities and enforcements are in doubt. Kuwait The Maritime Law 28 of 1980 (maritime commerce) Implementing regulations of 15 Aug 1990. Emiri decree 7 of 16 Feb 1959 (ports general law). Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Laos Laos has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Latvia Law of 29 Apr 2003 (Maritime Code), Law of 22 Dec 2005, Law 142 of 22 Jun 1994 (ports). Lebanon Code of Maritime Commerce of 18 Feb 1947. Lesotho Lesotho has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Liberia Liberian Maritime Law Regulations, (2002) Cap. 1, Title 21. §11 (L.R.); The Constitution of the Republic of Liberia, Art. 66 (L.R.) and the Liberian Revised Code of Laws, 21 Liber. Rev. Code § 30 (codified as amended (1956)). Libya Code of Maritime Commerce of 1953, Law 81 of 21 Jul 1970. Liechtenstein Liechtenstein has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Lithuania Law 1–1,513 of 12 Sep 1996 (commercial shipping); Law of 29 Aug 2000 (safety in navigation). Luxembourg Commercial Code, sections 190–436, the Maritime Act 1990 (now fallen into desuetude). The Statute of April 14, 1992, instituting a Disciplinary and Penal Merchant Marine Code. Loi of 14 Jul 1996 (navigation on interior waterways) in Mémorial pg. 652. Macedonia Macedonia has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Madagascar Loi 28 of 1999 (Loi de Commerce Maritime). Loi 29 of 4 Aug 1995 (general organization of land and river transport). Loi 25 of 1 Aug 2003 (Statute des Ports). Malawi Inland Waters Shipping Act. Chapter 71:01 act 12 of 1995 [2000]. Malaysia Merchant Shipping Ordinance of 1952. Federation of Malaya Ordinance 70 of 1952. Rules of 1984. Merchant Shipping (oil pollution) Act 515 of 1994. Malaysian Maritime Agency enforcement Act 633 of 2004. Carriage of Goods by Sea Ordinance 13 of 1950 (Federation of Malaya). Revised by No. 527 of 1994. Ports Privatization Act 422 of 1990. Maldives The shipping laws of the Maldives are being rewritten. The current laws deal with yachts and yacht registration. It appears that the Maldives follows Indian shipping laws in the absence of a complrehensive code in the Maldives. Mali Mali has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Malta Malta Maritime Code, annotated through 2005. Marshall Islands The Maritime Act, Title 47 of the Marshall Islands Revised Code of Laws, (1990) Chap. 3A, (R.M.I). Mauritania Code de la Maritime Marchand. Loi 9 of 31 Jan 1995. Mauritius Act 28 of 1986 (merchant shipping). Code de Commerce, ammended by Law no. 28 of 1985, sections 190 and following. Act 3 of 1998 (ports). Mexico Ley de Navegacion, 1994. Ley de Navegacion y Comercio Maritime, 1963. Codified as Commercial Code, Libro 5:6. Regulations of 10 Nov, Ley de puertos, 1993, Reglamento para el Transporte Multi-modal Internacional, 1982. Micronesia Title 19 of the Federated States of Micronesia Code, 1997, as amended. Moldova Codul Navigatiei Maritime comerciale al Republicii Moldova. Law 599-XIV of 30 Sep 1999. Monaco Code de la Mer. Loi 1,198 of 27 Mar 1998. Abrogating and replacing Book II of the Commercial Code, as well as other related laws. Codes et Lois (36.53–36.58) (ships and maritime navigation). Mongolia Maritime Law of Mongolia, 28 May, 1999 Ulaanbaatar. Montenegro Montenegro uses the Yugoslav maritime law on sea and ship transport of 1977, revised and reformed by Yugoslav law 12 of 4 Mar 1998 (maritime and inland navigation). Morocco Code of Maritime Commerce amended by Loi 1–73-407 of 5 Aug 1974. Book III (preservation and protection of the maritime environment). Law 15 of 2002 (ports and harbours). Implemented by Dahir 05–146 of 23 Nov 2005. Merchant Marine Disciplinary and Penal Code. Mozambique Lei do Mar. Lei 4 of 4 Jan 1996. (inland waterways and maritime transport; maritime boundaries, exclusive economic zones, etc.) Lei 5 of 4 Jan 1976 (maritime courts). Resoluçâo 5 of 2 Apr 1996 (general air, land and sea transportation policy of Mozambique). Myanmar The maritime law appears to be the United Kingdom Shipping Act of 1894 converted to the Indian Shipping Act of 1923 then Burma Shipping Act of 1937. See also Burma Registration of Ships Act (India Act X of 5 Jul 1841), Burma Carriage of Goods by Sea Act (India Act XXVI of 21 Sep 1925). Namibia Marine Traffic Act 2 of 1981 (South Africa). Amended by Acts 5 of 1983 (South Africa) and 15 of 1991 and Marine Traffic Regulations R194. Merchant Shipping Act (South Africa Act 51 of 1951). Wreck and Salvage Act 5 of 2004. Nauru Nauru has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Nepal Nepal has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Netherlands The Civil Code of Netherlands. New Zealand Admiralty Act of 1973. Marine Insurance Act of 1908. Maritime Transport Act of 1994. Mercantile Act of 1908 and Mercantile Law Amendment Act of 1994. Shipping Act of 1987. Ship Registration Act 89 of 1992. Port Companies Act of 1988 and Amendment Act of 1990. Transport Act of 1962. Carriage of Goods Act of 1979. Maritime Security Act of 2004. Nicaragua Commercial Code, sec.735–1,046 and (registry of vessels) Reglamento 326 of 10 Jan 1983. Ley 399 of 4 Jul 2001 (maritime transport). Niger Niger has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Nigeria Merchant Shipping Act. Chapter 224, Laws of the Federation of Nigeria of 1990, Carriage of Goods by Sea Act. Chapter 44, Laws of the Federation of Nigeria of 1990. Act 10 of 2003 (Nigerian Maritime Labour). Norway Lov 39 of 24 Jun 1994 (consolidated law on maritime activities). Lov 48 of 12 Jun 1987 om norsk internasjonalt skipsregister (ships registry). Skipssikerhetsloven. Lov 9 of 16 Feb 2007 (maritime safety and security). Oman Sultani decree 35 of 1981. Pakistan Merchant Shipping Act of 1894 (UK) and Merchant Shipping Act of 1923 (UK). Amended by Act of 1958 and Ordinance of 1966. Palau Palau has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Panama Commercial Code, Código de Comercio. Ley 2 of 22 Aug 1916, amended by Ley 25 of 26 Aug 1994, Decreto ley 5 of 2 Jul 1997; Supreme Court decisions of 19 Jan 1994, 8 Feb 1994 and 17 Oct 1994; Código maritimo, Ley 8 of 30 Mar 1982, Amended by Ley 11 of 23 May 1986. Papua New Guinea Merchant Shipping Acts of 1894–1921 (UK). Merchant Shipping Act of 1975. Chapter 242. Harbours Act. Chapter 280. Admiralty Act 2 of 1987. Admiralty Court Act of 1840 (UK). Admiralty Court Rules 1 of 1926 (UK). Paraguay Commercial Code, sections 856–1,378. Ley 1,590 of 16 Sep 2000 (national transportation system and creation of the Direccion Nacional de Transporte). Peru Commercial Code. Libro III: Del comercio maritimo. Specific concessions in Leyes 22,202 of 6 Jun 1978; 22,283 of 5 Sep 1978; 23,517 of 17 Dec 1982 and 23,623 of 27 May 1983. Philippines The Maritime Code of 1961. Uniform text, 1986, amended 1989 and 1991. Code of Commerce of 1888, as amended. Poland Law of 14 Sep 2001 (maritime code). Law of 21 Dec 2000 (maritime transport). Law of 26 Jul 1991 (conditions of operation in international transportation). Law of 26 Oct 2000 (ships registry). Law of 20 Dec 1996 (harbours and seaports). Portugal Commercial Code, Book 3 and Decreto lei 349 of 17 Oct 1986 and Decreto lei 191 of 29 Apr 1987. Maritime transportation currently regulated by a series of Decree laws of 6–8 May 1998 and Decretos leis 189–203 of 1998. Qatar Code of Maritime Commerce, Law 15 of 1980. Romania Regulations and rules are issued by the Romanian Naval Authority. Russia Federal Law 81-FZ of 30 Apr 1999 (Merchant Shipping Code of the Russian Federation). Grazhdanskii Kodeks [GK] [Civil Code] ART. 152 (Russ.). Federal’nyi zakon [FZ] [Federal Law] 1997, No. 143, Art. 5340 (Russ.). Rwanda Rwanda has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Saint Kitts and Nevis Merchant Shipping Act of 2002. West Indies Shipping Corporation Act 11 of 1977. Carriage of Goods by Sea Act. Administration of Justice Act of 1956 (UK). Admiralty Jurisdition Extension Order in UK, 1964 no. 1,663. Samoa Shipping Act, 1988. San Marino San Marino has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Sâo Tome and Principe Laws regulating the master are similar in all material respects to Portuguese law. See Portugal. Saudi Arabia Commercial Code, sections 150–431. Order 53 of 24–3-140 3AH (applications for licenses by firms and companies for carrying on the activity of maritime carriage). Senegal Code de la Marine Marchande et du Marine. Loi 32 of 22 Mar 1962. Serbia Law on Maritime Navigation (sea and ship transport), amended and reformed by Law of 4 Mar 1998. Seychelles Merchant Shipping Act of 1 Sierra Leone The Merchant Shipping Act, No. 3 (2003) (Sierra Leone); The Sierra Leone Maritime Administration Act, No. 30 (2000) (Sierra Leone). Singapore Merchant Shipping Act, Chapt 179, 1996 as amended. Slovak Republic Act 61 of 29 Oct 1952 (maritime navigation). Law of 30 Oct 2000 (maritime transport). Slovenia Maritime code in Uradni list Republike Slovenije 2001 no. 26 and 2002 no. 21. Official consolidated text, as of 27 Feb 2004, in Uradni list Republike Slovenije 2004 no. 37, item 1,575. Law of 22 Mar 2002 (shipping in inland waters) in Uradni list Republike Slovenije 2002 no. 30, items 1,254. Solomon Islands Shipping Act of 1988. Somalia Code of Maritime Commerce. Law 1 of 1959, in the version of Laws 7 of 1966 and 3 of 1967. South Africa Merchant Shipping Act 57 of 1951. Amended by Act 18 of 1992. Act 58 of 1998 (ship registration). Amends and reforms to the 1951 Merchant Shipping Act. Spain C.Com, bk. III (1885); Ley de 21 Aug. 1893 (Ship Mortgages); Ley of 22 Fev 1949 (bills of lading). Sri Lanka Merchant Shipping Ordinance Chapter 233, Act No. 52 of 1971. Reformed by Law 21 of 1982. Ceylon Shipping Corporation Act. Chapter 234. Admiralty Jurisdiction Act. Law 40 of 1983. Piracy Act. Law 9 of 2001. St. Lucia Act 11 of 1994 (shipping). Chapter 13:27 in 2001 Revised edition. St. Lucia Air and Sea Ports Authority Act, Chapter 8:13 in 2001 Revised edition. Admiralty Jurisdiction (St. Lucia) order in UK Statutory Instruments 1965 no. 129. St. Vincent and Grenadines Shipping Act 11 of 2004 (Act No. 11 of 2004); Maritime Security Act 6 of 2002. Sudan Maritime Act of 1961. Suriname Commercial Code, sections 375–970. Wet maritieme vebeiliging. Law of 30 Jun 2004 (maritime security and safety). Swaziland Swaziland has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Sweden The Maritime Code, no. 1009 (1994) (Swed.), consolidating of all Swedish maritime legislation. This incorporates the Hamburg rules and reenacts The Hague and Visby rules. The Work Environment Act, no. 365 (2003) (Swed.). The Maritime Safety Ordinance, no. 438 (2003) (Swed.) (implements EU directives). The Act on Maritime Security with Amendment Act, no. 487 (2004) (Swed.) (harmonizes EU directives). Switzerland Loi of 18 Dec 1992 (registration, nationality and ownership of ships). Implemented by Ordonnance of 5 May 1993. Federal Law on Maritime Navigation under the Swiss Flag. Syria Code Maritime, Law 86 of 1950 of 12 Mar 1950. Tajikistan Tajikistan has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Tanzania Merchant Shipping Act 21 of 2003. Thailand The Kingdom of Thailand appears to have no organic merchant shipping act for the foreign trade. It applies the Commercial Code as necessary by analogy. Act of 11 Jul 2005 (continuous transportation in various forms, shipment of goods by varying types of transport) (BE2548). Navigation in Thai territorial waters Act of 1914 (BE2456). Amended in 1982 (BE2525). The Thai Vessel Act B.E. 2481 (1938), administered by the Ministry of Transport and Communications, regulates the qualification of merchant shipping operators. Other laws governing water transport include the Collision Prevention Act B.E. 2522 (1979), the Navigation in Thai Waters Act B.E. 2455 (1913), the Arrest of Ships Act B.E. 2534 (1991), the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act B.E. 2534 (1991), the Ship Mortgages and Maritime Preferential Rights Act B.E. 2537 (1994), the General Average Relating to Sea Peril in the Navigation Act B.E. 2547 (2004) and the Civil Liabilities and Damages Relating to the Vessel Collision Act B.E. 2548 (2005). Timor-L’este Timor-L’este uses Indonesian maritime law, qv. Togo Merchant Shipping Code. Ordonnance 29 of 12 Aug 1971. Merchant Shipping Decree 8 of 9 Jan 1980. Tonga Shipping Act, Chapter 136, Laws of Tonga, 1988. Trinidad and Tobago Act of 1894 (UK) (merchant shipping); Merchant Shipping Act, chapter 50:01 (2 Jul 1917). Both acts repealed by Shipping Act 24 of 1987. Tunisia Code de Commerce Maritime. Law 59 of 11 Jun 1976 (maritime administration). Loi 25 of 18 Mar 1999 (protection, rules and management of commercial maritime ports). Loi 33 of 1995 (merchant mariner profession). Reformed by Loi 69 of 27 Oct 1997. Turkey Deniz ticaret kanunu (Code of Maritime Commerce) of 23 May 1929. Reformed by Law of 29 Jan 1956. Codified as Commercial Code, Book IV. Gemi sicili nizamnamesi. Law 9,526 of 1957 (ship registry). Law 618 of 14 Apr. 1925 (ports). Turkmenistan Turkmenistani shipping laws appear to follow those of Mongolia. Tuvalu The Merchant Shipping Act of 1987. Uganda Rivers Act. Chapter 357 Revised. Inland Water Transport Act. Chapter 356 Revised. Ukraine The Maritime Code. Law 176–95-VR of 23 May 1995. Amended 21 Nov-26 Dec 1995. United Arab Emirates Government decree 23 of 26 Jun 2001 (limiting ships under certain national flags of convenience from access to U.A.E. territorial waters). Federal law 26 of 1981 (The Maritime Law, including ship registry). Most recently amended by Law 11 of 1988. Implemented and regulated by Ministerial resolution 46 of 1995. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and British Overseas Dependencies The Merchant Shipping Act 1995 (covers almost all aspects of merchant shipping). The Shipping and Trading Interests (Protection) Act 1995 (protects and regulates shipping interests in the United Kingdom). Part II of the Merchant Shipping Act 1995 only applies to sea-going ships, with a few specific exceptions. There are no express provisions extending its application to the United Kingdom’s overseas territories, which remain for the most part ruled by earlier Merchant Shipping Acts. United States Title 33 of the United States Code, Title 33 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 46 of the United States Code, and Title 46 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Uruguay Ley 10,945 of 10 Oct 1947 (merchant marine). Regulations of 31 Aug 1949. Commercial Code, sections 1,030–1,522. Ley 12,091 of 23 Jan 1954 (navigation code). Ley 16,246 of 8 Apr 1992 (ports and port services). Uzbekistan Civil Code, sec. 709–731 (Contracts for Carriage and Transport). Vanuatu Maritime Act. Chapter 131. Amended by no. 8 of 1989. Maritime regulations order 25 of 1990. Amended by Order 21 of 1998. Maritime regulations (amendment) order 21 of 1998. Shipping Act. Chapter 53. Implemented and amended by Shipping regulations order 6 of 1999. Vanuatu Maritime Authority Act 29 of 1998. Vatican The State of The Vatican City has no specifically relevant maritime legislation. Venezuela Decreto con fuerza de ley 1,506 of 30 Oct 2001 (maritime commerce). Decreto con fuerza de ley 1,551 of 12 Nov 2001 (procedure in maritime matters). Ley general de puertos of 3 Dec 2002. Ley de navegacion. Ley of 17 Sep 1998. Ley de protection y desarollo de la Marina Mercante Nacional (25 Jun 1973) y su reglamento (9 Jun 1974). Ley de Comercio Maritimo, 2001. Decreto No. 1.506 (October 30, 2001), amended. (“Ley Maritima”) Ley Orgânica que los Espacios Acuâticos, 2008. Decreto No. 6.126; (“Ley Acuâtico”) Ley General de Marinas y Actividades Conexas, 2002. Vietnam Bô luât hàng hi Viêt Nam. Law 40–2005-QH11 of 14 Jun 2005 (Maritime Code ofVietNam). Decree 91-CP of 23 Aug 1997 (regulations on the registration of seagoing ships and crews). Yemen Maritime Law, 1991. Zambia Inland Waters Shipping Act, Chapter 785. Zimbabwe Inland Waters Shipping Act. Chapter 13:06.

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